Virology & Mycology Infectious Diseases
 
   Publications A-Z
A
»Accounting & Marketing
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Advanced Chemical Engineering
»Advances in Automobile Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
»Advances in Robotics & Automation
»Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advance Research in Meteorological Sciences
»Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
»Aging Science
»Agrotechnology
»AIDS & Clinical Research
»Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
»Allergy & Therapy
»Alternative & Integrative Medicine
»Air & Water borne Diseases
»Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
»Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
»Anaplastology
»Anatomy & Physiology
»Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
»Andrology-Open Access
»Anesthesia & Clinical Research
»Angiology: Open Access
»Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
»Anthropology
»Applied & Computational Mathematics
»Applied Mechanical Engineering
»Aquaculture Research & Development
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
»Architectural Engineering Technology
»Arthritis
»Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Astrobiology & Outreach
»Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
»Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
»Autism-Open Access
  
B
»Bacteriology & Parasitology
»Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
»Bioceramics Development and Applications
»Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
»Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access
»Biochips & Tissue Chips
»Biodiversity & Endangered Species
»Bioenergetics: Open Access
»Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
»Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
»Biosafety & Health Education
»Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
»Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
»Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Biomusical Engineering
»Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
»Biological Systems- Open Access
»Biology and Medicine
»Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
»Bioremediation & Biodegradation
»Biosafety
»Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
»Biotechnology & Biomaterials
»Bioterrorism & Biodefense
»Blood Disorders & Transfusion
»Blood & Lymph
»Bone Marrow Research
»Brain Disorders & Therapy
»Business and Economics Journal
»Business and Financial Affairs
  
C
»Cancer Science & Therapy
»Climatology & Weather forecasting
»Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
»Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
»Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
»Cell & Developmental Biology
»Cell Science & Therapy
»Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
»Chemical Sciences Journal
»Chemotherapy: Open Access
»Child and Adolescent Behavior
»Chromatography & Separation Techniques
»Civil & Environmental Engineering
»Civil & Legal Sciences
»Clinical & Cellular Immunology
»Clinical Case Reports
»Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
»Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
»Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
»Clinical & Experimental Pathology
»Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
»Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
»Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
»Clinical Research & Bioethics
»Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
»Clinical Toxicology
»Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
»Cloning & Transgenesis
»Community Medicine & Health Education
»Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
»Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
»Cytology & Histology
D
»Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Defense Management
»Dentistry
»Depression and Anxiety
»Developing Drugs
»Diabetes & Metabolism
»Drug Designing
»Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
  
E
»Earth Science & Climatic Change
»Ecosystem & Ecography
»Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
»Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
»Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
»Epidemiology: Open Access
»Emergency Medicine
»Ergonomics
»Electrical & Electronics
»Enzyme Engineering
»Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
  
F
»Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
»Fermentation Technology
»Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
»Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
»Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Food Processing & Technology
»Forensic Biomechanics
»Forensic Research
»Forest Research: Open Access
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
»Fungal Genomics & Biology
  
G
»Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
»Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
»Gene Technology
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
»Glycobiology
»Glycomics & Lipidomics
»Gynecology& Obstetrics
»General Medicine
»General Practice
»Geography & Natural Disasters
»Geology & Geosciences
»Geophysics & Remote Sensing
»Gerontology & Geriatric Research
»Global Economics
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
  
H
»Hair : Therapy & Transplantation
»Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
»Health Care : Current Reviews
»Health & Medical Informatics
»Hereditary Genetics
»Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»Horticulture
»Hotel & Business Management
»Human Genetics & Embryology
»Hydrology: Current Research
»Hypertension- Open Access
  
I
»Industrial Engineering & Management
»Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Infectious Diseases and Therapy
»Information Technology & Software Engineering
»Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»Integrative Oncology
»Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Accounting Research
»International Journal of Advanced Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
»International Journal of Economics and Management Science
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
»International Journal of waste resources
»International Journal of Genomic Medicine
»International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»Innovative Energy Policies
»Immunome Research
  
J
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
  
L
»Liver
» Leukemia
» Lovotics
  
M
»Marine Science: Research & Development
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
»Mass Communication & Journalism
»Material Sciences & Engineering
»Medicinal Chemistry
»Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
»Medical Diagnostic Methods
»Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
»Medical & Surgical Urology
»Membrane Science & Technology
»Metabolic Syndrome
»Metabolomics:Open Access
»Microbial & Biochemical Technology
»Modern Chemistry & Applications
»Molecular Biology
»Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
»Molecular and Genetic Medicine
»Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
»Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
»Mycobacterial Diseases
N
»Natural Products Chemistry & Research
»Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
»Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
»Neonatal Biology
»Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neurology & Neurophysiology
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
»Neurological Disorders
»Novel Physiotherapies
»Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
»Nutrition & Food Sciences
»Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
»Nursing & Care
  
O
»Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
»Oceanography-Open Access
»Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
»OMICS Journal of Radiology
»Osteoporosis and Physical Activity
»Oral Health and Dental Management
»Oral Hygiene & Health
»Organic Chemistry: Current Research
»Orthopedic & Muscular System: Current Research
»Otolaryngology
  
P
»Pain & Relief
»Palliative Care & Medicine
»Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
»Pediatrics & Therapeutics
»Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
»Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
»Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs: Open Access
»Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
»Pharmacovigilance
»Physical Chemistry & Biophysics
»Physical Mathematics
»Plant Pathology & Microbiology
»Plant Biochemistry & Physiology
»Pollution Effects & Control
»political Sciences & public affairs
»Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
»Powder Metallurgy & Mining
»Primatology
»Primary Health Care: Open Access
»Probiotics & Health
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Proteomics & Bioinformatics
»Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Psychology & Psychotherapy
»Psychological Abnormalities in Children
»Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
  
R
»Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
»Rheumatology: Current Research
»Rice Research: Open Access
  
S
» Single Cell Biology
»Sleep Disorders & Therapy
»Socialomics
»Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
»Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
»Spine
»Stem Cell Research & Therapy
»Steroids & Hormonal Science
»Stock & Forex Trading
»Surgery: Current Research
  
T
»Telecommunications System & Management
»Textile Science & Engineering
»Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
»Thermodynamics & Catalysis
»Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
»Tissue Science & Engineering
»Translational Medicine
»Transplantation Technologies & Research
»Transcriptomics: Open Access
»Trauma & Treatment
»Tropical Diseases
»Tropical Medicine and Surgery
»Tourism & Hospitality
  
V
»Vaccines & Vaccination
»Vascular Medicine & surgery
»Veterinary Science & Technology
»Virology & Mycology
»Vitamins & Minerals
»Vortex Science and Technology
  
W
»Women's Health Care
  
Y
»Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
   Browse by Subjects
Clinical
» AIDS & Clinical Research
» Anesthesia & Clinical Research
» Angiology
» Cancer Science & Therapy
» Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
» Cell Science & Therapy
» Chemotherapy
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» Clinical & Cellular Immunology
» Clinical Case Reports
» Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
» Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
» Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
» Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
» Clinical & Experimental Pathology
» Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
» Clinical Research & Bioethics
» Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
» Clinical Toxicology
» Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
» Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
» Cytology & Histology
» Forensic Research
»Forensic Biomechanics
» Integrative Oncology
»Immunome Research
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
» Neurology & Neurophysiology
» Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
» Stem Cell Research & Therapy
» Transplantation Technologies & Research
   
Pharmaceutical Sciences
» Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
» Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
» Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
» Biochemical Pharmacology
» Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
» Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
» Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
» Developing Drugs
» Drug Designing
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» Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
» Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs
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Chemistry
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» Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
   
Environmental
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» Earth Science & Climatic Change
» Ecosystem & Ecography
» Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
» Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
» Geography & Natural Disasters
» Hydrology: Current Research
»Innovative Energy Policies
»International Journal of waste resources
» Oceanography-Open Access
» Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
» Pollution Effects & Control
» Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
   
Omics
» Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Ergonomics
» Glycomics & Lipidomics
» Health & Medical Informatics
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
» Metabolomics:Open Access
» OMICS Journal of Radiology
» Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
» Proteomics & Bioinformatics
» Transcriptomics
   
Life Sciences
» Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
» Aging Science
» Agrotechnology
» Air & Water Borne Diseases
» Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
» Autism-Open Access
» Bacteriology & Parasitology
» Biochemistry & Physiology
» Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
» Bioenergetics
» Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
» Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
» Biological Systems
» Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
» Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Bioremediation & Biodegradation
» Biosafety
» Biosafety & Health Education
» Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
» Biotechnology & Biomaterials
» Bioterrorism & Biodefense
» Cell & Developmental Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
» Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
» Enzyme Engineering
» Fermentation Technology
» Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
» Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
» Forest Research
» Fungal Genomics & Biology
» Gene Technology
» Glycobiology
» Horticulture
» Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
» Marine Science: Research & Development
» Membrane Science & Technology
» Microbial & Biochemical Technology
» Molecular Biology
» Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
» Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
» Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
» Nutrition & Food Sciences
» Plant Pathology & Microbiology
» Primatology
» Probiotics & Health
» Rice Research: Open Access
» Single Cell Biology
» Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
» Tissue Science & Engineering
» Tropical Diseases
» Veterinary Science & Technology
» Vitamins & Minerals
»Virology & Mycology
   
Engineering
» Advances in Automobile Engineering
» Advances in Robotics & Automation
» Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
» Applied & Computational Mathematics
» Applied Mechanical Engineering
» Architectural Engineering Technology
» Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
» Biochips & Tissue Chips
» Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
» Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
» Civil & Environmental Engineering
» Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Electrical & Electronics
» Food Processing & Technology
» Geology and Geosciences
» Geophysics & Remote sensing
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
» Industrial Engineering & Management
» Information Technology & Software Engineering
» International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
» Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
» Lovotics
» Material Sciences & Engineering
»Physical Mathematics
» Powder Metallurgy & Mining
» Telecommunications System & Management
» Textile Science & Engineering
»Vortex Science and Technology
   
Medical Sciences
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Allergy & Therapy
» Alternative & Integrative Medicine
» Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
» Anaplastology
» Anatomy & Physiology
» Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
» Andrology
» Arthritis
» Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
» Bioceramics Development and Applications
» Biology and Medicine
» Biomusical Engineering
» Blood & Lymph
» Blood Disorders & Transfusion
» Bone Marrow Research
» Brain Disorders & Therapy
» Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
» Cloning & Transgenesis
» Community Medicine & Health Education
» Dentistry
» Depression and Anxiety
» Diabetes & Metabolism
» Emergency Medicine
» Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
» Epidemiology: Open Access
» Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
» Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
» General Medicine
» General Practice
» Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
» Gynecology& Obstetrics
» Gerontology & Geriatrics Research
» Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
» Hair: Therapy & Transplantation
» Health Care : Current Reviews
» Hereditary Genetics
» Human Genetics & Embryology
» Hypertension-Open Access
» Infectious Diseases & Therapy
» International Journal of Genomic Medicine
» Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
» International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
» Leukemia
» Liver
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
» Medical & Surgical Urology
» Medical Diagnostic Methods
» Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
» Metabolic Syndrome
» Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
» Molecular and Genetic Medicine
» Mycobacterial Diseases
» Neonatal Biology
» Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
» Neurological Disorders
» Novel Physiotherapies
» Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
» Nursing & Care
» Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
» Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
» Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
» Oral Health and Dental Management
» Oral Hygiene & Health
» Orthopedic & Muscular System
» Osteoporosis & Physical Activity
» Otolaryngology
» Pain & Relief
» Palliative Care & Medicine
» Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
» Pediatrics & Therapeutics
» Primary Health Care
» Psychological Abnormalities in Children
» Psychology & Psychotherapy
» Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
» Rheumatology: Current Research
» Sleep Disorders & Therapy
» Spine
» Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
» Steroids & Hormonal Science
» Surgery: Current Research
» Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
» Translational Medicine
» Trauma & Treatment
» Tropical Medicine and Surgery
» Vascular Medicine & surgery
» Women's Health Care
» Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
Management
» Accounting & Marketing
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
» Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Business and Economics Journal
» Business and Financial Affairs
» Civil & Legal Sciences
» Defense Management
» Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
» Global Economics
» Hotel & Business Management
» Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»International Journal of Accounting Research
» International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
» Mass Communication & Journalism
» political Sciences & public affairs
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
» Socialomics
» Stock & Forex Trading
» Tourism & Hospitality
 
   Conferences
Upcoming Conferences
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Translational Medicine, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Predictive, Preventive and Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
» 2nd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» International Conference on Genetic Engineering & Genetically Modified Organisms, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» 4th World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Radiology and Imaging, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Dental & Oral Health, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA
»International Conference on Oceanography, August 21-23, 2013 Orlando, USA
»International Conference on Biodefense & Natural Disasters, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA
» World Congress on Endocrinology, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo, August 26-27, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» 2nd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» International Conference on Omics Studies, September 04-06, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
»International Symposia on Entomology, September 04-06, 2013 Miami, USA
»2nd International Conference on Surgery and Anesthesia, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers & Biosimilars, September 23-25, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»4th World Congress on Biotechnology, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»International Conference on Psychology, Autism and Alzheimer's Disease, September 30-October 01, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, September 30-October 02, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Summit on Toxicology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biochemical & Molecular Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics, October 7-9, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical & Cellular Immunology, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»4th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Natural Products, October 21-23, 2013 Hyderabad, India
» 3rd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»3rd International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs, & STIs, October 24-25, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
» International Conference on Fermentation Technology, Bioprocess and Cell Culture, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»International Conference on Functional and Comparative Genomics & Pharmacogenomics, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Summit on GMP, QA & QC, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Summit on GLP, GCP & Clinical Pharmacology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials, November 18-19, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Summit on Clinical Pharmacy & Dispensing, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»3rd World Congress on Virology, November, 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious diseases, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»3rd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research, November 20-22, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Nursing & Emergency Medicine, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Nanotek & Expo, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine, December 09-11, 2013 Hyderabad, India
»2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, February 03-05, 2014 Hyderabad, India
Previous Conferences Organized/Co-organized
»2nd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Animal & Dairy Sciences, July 23-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»4th International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health & Safety, May 21-22, 2013 Beijing, China
»4th World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence, May 20-22, 2013 Beijing, China
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Exhibition and Conference on Water Technologies, Environmental Technologies & Renewable Energy, February 13-14, 2013 Mumbai, India
»International Summit on GMP & GCP: USA, Europe, Japan, Asia Pacific December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»International Conference on QA, QC and Validation, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»2nd International Conference on Nanotek and Expo, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity and Weight Management, December 03-05, 2012 at DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia, USA.
»International conference on Hair Transplantation and Trichology November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference on Anesthesia & Perioperative Care during November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Toxicology Summit & Expo November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Surgery & Transplantation November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad, India.
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
»2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India
»International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Cosmetics November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Genetic Syndromes & GeneTherapy November 19-21, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA
»Global Biofuels and Bioproducts Summit November 19-21, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics-2012, November 19–21, 2012, Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Cell Science and Stem Cell Research, November 12-14, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»International Conference on Regenerative and Functional Medicine, November 12-14, 2012 at San Antonio, Texas, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics November 12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
» International Confeernce on Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine October 29 - 31, 2012 Chicago, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Aided Drug Design & QSAR October 29-31, 2012, Chicago, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical and Cellular Immunology October 22-24, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference and Expo on Material science and Engineering October 22-24, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
» International Expo and Conference on Analytrix & HPLC October 22-24, 2012 Hilton Northbrook, Chicago, USA.
»International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Otolaryngology October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International conference on Biothreats and Biodefense October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International Conference on Tissue Science and Engineering October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»International conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance and Clinical Trials October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»International Conference on Emerging Cell Therapies October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism which is to be held on September 24-26, 2012 Marriott Convention Center, Hyderabad, India.
»2nd International Conference on Pediatrics & Gynecology September 24-26, 2012, Hyderabad Marriott Hotel & Convention Centre , Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Translational medicine-2012, September 17-19, 2012 Holiday Inn San Antonio, Texas, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Biotechnology September 13-15, 2012 HICC, Hyderabad, India
»International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad, India.
» International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
» International Conference on Hotel and Business Management September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
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Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan Rabia Yaqoob, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan Hafiz Muhammad Tahir*, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan Shafaat Yar Khan and Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan Sajida Naseem
 
Corresponding Author : Hafiz Muhammad Tahir
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan
E-mail: hafiztahirpk1@yahoo.com
 
Received March 23, 2013; Accepted April 26, 2013; Published April 29, 2013
 
Citation: Yaqoob R, Tahir HM, Khan SY, Naseem S (2013) Insecticide Resistance in Bactocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in District, Sargodha, Pakistan. BiochemPharmacol 2:114. doi:
 
Copyright: © 2013 Yaqoob R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 
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Abstract
 
 
Keywords
 
Esterases; Glutathione S-transferases; Monooxygenases
 
Introduction
 
Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are one of the most economically important groups of horticulture insects pests worldwide [1,2]. They contribute loss of millions dollar to fruits and vegetable marketing in the region. In Pakistan, synthetic insecticides of different chemistry and mode of action are being used for the management of fruit flies [2,3]. Long term and extensive use of insecticide of same chemistry and mechanism, not only cause resistance among insect pests, but also put stress on the economy of the country. Resistance against many insecticides (i.e. DDT, methoxychlore, malathion, bifenthrin, trichlorfon, lamda cyhalothrin and sipnosad) has been well studied in many Tephritidae pests [2]. In Pakistan, resistance against diptrex (Trichlorofon), Malathion [4], bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin has been reported in Bactocera dorsalis and B. zonzta [2]. There are many physiological mechanisms for insecticide resistance, but increased metabolic detoxification and decreased target site sensitivity are considered important [5].
 
Esterases are the most significant enzymes, involved in the metabolism of insecticides [6]. Carboxylester and phosphodiested bonds of carbamates, organophosphate and pyrithroids are attacking sites for esterases [7,8]. Esterases are able to break an ester bond by using water molecule and cause insecticide resistance, either by metabolizing very restricted range of insecticides containing ester bonds, or by rapid-binding and sequestration of insecticides. Glutathion S-transferases belong to a vast family of multifunctional interacellular enzymes, which are involved in detoxification of both endogenous and exogenous chemicals [9-11]. Involvement of one or more GST in resistance to organophosphate is reported in house-fly Musca domestica [12], to organochloride in fruit fly Drosophila melanogester [13], and to pyrithroids in planthopper Nilaparvata lugens [14]. These enzymes also protect the body tissues from oxidative stress [9].
 
Monooxygenases are phase I metabolic enzymes [15]. They metabolize a wide range of insecticides by hydroxylation, epoxidation and oxidation [16]. They also play a vital role in tolerance of plant toxins in insects [17]. Generally, monooxygenases are found in all body tissues, but highest activities are observed in mid gut. Monooxygenases are mainly involved in the metabolism of pyrethroids, and to a lesser extent in the detoxification of organophosphates and carbamates [16]. In B. dorsalis, increased activity of monooxygenases is found to be associated with malathion resistance, along with carboxylesterases [6]. Over expression of genes is recognized as chief mechanism of monooxygenase based resistance. The over expression of the P450 enzymes in pyrethroid resistant insects is well documented [18].
 
As studies have revealed a positive correlation between levels of detoxifying enzymes and insecticide resistance, so quantification of these enzymes is used to monitor resistance against insecticides, and will be helpful in future for the better management of insect pests in the area. Objective of current study was to determine the susceptibility status Bactocera zonata in the study area, and also to quantify and compare the levels of insecticide detoxifying enzymes in the control and flies exposed to different insecticides.
 
Materials and Methods
 
Test organism-sampling
 
Test insects were obtained from Ajnala, Sargodha (30º10” N and 72º45” E). Adult fruit fly (Bactocera zonata) were collected from fallen infected fruits and brought to the laboratory. These were reared in 2×2×2 ft plastic cages under controlled conditions (Photo period 12:12 (L: D); temperature, 26 ± 2ºC; Relative Humidity 60 ± 5%). Three to four day old adults were used in the experiment.
 
Enzyme preparation
 
For biochemical estimation of detoxifying enzymes, flies were exposed to the selected insecticides (i.e. Trichlorofon, Malathion and λ-cyhalothrin) for one hour, and then shifted to clean jars. After 24 hours of exposure, survivors were frozen at -20°C for 15-20 minutes in order to immobilize the insect, and then wings, legs and abdomen of flies were removed. Rest of the body was homogenized in 400 μl chilled phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.0), containing 0.01% (w/v) of triton X-100 [19]. The crude homogenate was centrifuged at 14,000 rpm for 5 minutes at 4°C. The supernatant was collected and used further as enzyme source for biochemical estimation of non-specific esterases (β-esterases), glutathione s-transferases (GST), and mixed function oxidases (MFOs). Unexposed flies were used as control.
 
Biochemical estimation of non-specific esterases
 
To measure the activity of non-specific esterases, β-naphthyl acetate was used as substrates [20]. The reaction mixture contained 20 μl homogenate, 20 μl substrate solution (0.1 M) and 150 μl phosphate buffer (100 mM). The reference solution of reaction mixture contained 20 μl substrate solution and 170 μl phosphate buffer. These mixtures were incubated for 30 minutes at 37°C. When incubation time was over, 100 μl of mixture of 1% fast blue b (FBB) salt and 5% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) in ratio 2:5 was added to stop the reaction. After 15 minutes optical densities were recorded at the wavelength of 545 nm using microplate reader (Thermo Scientific Multiskan FC Microplate Photometer). The optical densities (OD) were compared with standard curve of β-napthol, in order to convert the absorbance into product concentrations. The enzyme activities were expressed as mmol of product formed/min/mg of protein.
 
Biochemical estimation of glutathione-s-transferases
 
The activity of Glutathione S-trasferases towards 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenezene (CDNB) was estimated according to the method of Habig et al. [21]. The reaction mixture was comprised of 40 μl 1.0 mM reduced Glutathione, 20 μl 1.0 mM 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 200 μl phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 7.0), and 20 μl of supernatant. Reference solution for reaction mixture contained 20 μl 1.0 mM CDNB, 200 μl phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 7.0), and 40 μl 1.0 mM reduced Glutathione. The absorbance was measured at 340 nm for 5 minutes, after five minutes of the reaction. Change in the absorbance per minute was converted into nano-moles of CDNB conjugate/min/ mg of protein, by using extinction coefficient (ε) of 9.6 mM cm-1 for CDNB-GSH conjugate.
 
 
Biochemical estimation of monooxygenases
 
Reaction mixture comprised of 20 μl of supernatant, 200 μl of 3,3, 5’,5’-Tetramethyl benzidine (TMBZ) solution (TMBZ solution was made by dissolving 0.01 g TMBZ in five ml ethanol and 15 ml 0.25 M sodium acetate buffer (PH 5.0)), 100 μl of 0.625 M potassium phosphate buffer (PPB) at pH 7.0 and 30 μl of 3% hydrogen peroxide. Reference solution for reaction mixture contained 200 μl TMBZ, 120 μl, 0.625 M potassium phosphate buffer (PPB) at pH 7.0 and 30 μl 3% hydrogen peroxide. After ten minutes readings were recorded at the wavelength of 620 nm [22]. The quantity of monooxygenases was calculated from a standard curve of cytochrome C.
 
Statistical analyses
 
One way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test was used to compare enzyme activities against different insecticides. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (version 13).
 
Results
 
The activity of esterases in insecticide treated male flies was significantly different from control group (df=3, 42; F=456.96; P>0.001). Results of Tukey’s test showed that there was no difference in esterase level in male flies treated with Trichlorofon and Malathion, but both groups differ significantly from control group (Table 1). It is also depicted in the table 1 that the level of esterases in λ-cyhalothrin treated flies was not only different from control group, but also from Trichlorofon and Malathion treated flies. When four groups of female flies were compared for beta esterase levels, we found statistically significant difference (df=3, 44; F=266.67; P=0.001). Trichlorofon and Malathion treated flies showed higher esterase activity compared to the control (Table 1).
 
Glutathion S-Transferase activities were also significantly different among different group of male flies (df=3, 42; F=214; P>0.001) (Table 2). Results of Tukey’s test showed that GST activity was higher in Malathion and λ-cyhalothrin treated flies, while Trichlorofon treated flies did not differ significantly from control and Malathion exposed flies. The activities of GST activity among female flies also vary significantly (df=3, 44; F=18.26; P=0.001). Activities were higher in Malathion and λ-cyhalothrin exposed flies than control group, respectively, while Trichlorofon treated flies did not differ from control and λ-cyhalothrin treated flies.
 
The activity of moooxygenases were also significantly different among different groups of male and female flies (df=3, 42; F=3.54; P=0.02 for male flies and df=3, 44; F=3.94; P=0.02 for female flies) (Table 3). According to Tukey’s test, among male flies, enzyme activity was significantly high in Trichlorofon and λ-cyhalothrin treated group of flies, as compared to control group while levels of GST activity in Malathion exposed group do not differ from any group, expect λ-cyhalothrin treated group of flies. In female flies, significantly higher enzyme activities were recorded in λ-cyhalothrin treated group.
 
Discussion
 
Participation of enzyme such as specific or non-specific esterases, monooxygenases and transferases has long been documented in insecticide detoxification and resistance development [16]. Our results were in accordance with that of Hsu et al. [6], who has reported increased activities of esterases towards α-napthyl acetate and β-napthyl acetate, and higher activities of mixed function oxidesases in malathion resistant strains of B. dorsalis than that of susceptible strains. While in case of GST, our findings were contrary to Hsu et al. [6] in a way that there was non-significant difference in enzyme activity between resistant and susceptible strain. In Malathion exposed populations, slightly elevated activity of β-esterases and Monooxygenases than unexposed groups, may explain the association of these enzymes with degradation of Malathion in insect body. Quantitative increase in esterases has also been documented relative to malathion resistance in sheep blowfly [23], Ceratitis capitata [24], and petromalid parasitoid [20]. Hsu et al. [6] also reported involvement of esterases in Trichlorofon and Malathion resistance. It is believed that monooxygenases and esterases are involved essentially equally in insecticide detoxification. It is thought that monooxygenases first degrade malathion into malaoxon, a highly toxic compound, which can then be easily attacked by esterases.
 
Hemingway et al. [25] explained that GST carries out O-dearylation and O-dealkylation processes, in order to detoxify organophosphate based insecticides. According to findings of Hsu et al. [6], only esterases are involved in resistant B. dorsalis against Nalid, Trichlorofon and Malathion. In contrast, according to Vontas et al. [14], there is no major role of esterases, GST and monooxygenase activity in organophosphate detoxification in B. oleae.
 
In our study increased β-esterases, GST and monooxygenases activities in Trichlorofon exposed populations were observed. GST is involved in pase II detoxification of Pyrithriod [26] and organophoisphate [27], in Ades agepti. In B. dorsalis, Hu et al. [28] also documented the involvement of GST in pyrithroid (β-cypermethrin) detoxification. In Anophelese funestus, pyrithroid resistance may be due to mixed function oxidases (MFO), along with GST based detoxification as secondary mechanism [29]. Involvement of monooxygenases in pyrethroid resistance in many mosquito species is documented as well by Hemingway and Ranson [7]. Vontas et al. [14] has reported GST based detoxification of pyrithroids in Nilaparvata lugens and Kostaropoulos et al. [30] in Tenebrio molitor. According to Chen et al. [31] in insecticide degradation, GSTs are of much less importance in adult B. minax than that of larvae. Our results, which showed slightly elevated activities of Monooxygenases activities in λ-cyhalothrin exposed populations, were in accordance with the findings of Chareonviriyaphap et al. [32], who reported increased activities of monooxygenases in pyrithroid (deltamethrin) resistant Anopheles minimus in Thailand. But in case of β-esterases, our results were contrary to him. Involvement of esterases, followed by mixed function oxidases, is also documented in pyrithroid resistance among different insects [33,34].
 
Involvement of other detoxifying mechanisms like altered target site sensitivity [35-38], mutations in genes driving detoxifying machinery [39,40], decreased penetration [41,42], and behavioral modifications to escape contact to toxins [43,44], are such phenomenon which are not considered in present study, but documented by many scientists. In future, we will extend our scope of study and investigate the involvement of other mechanisms of insecticide resistance.
 
Our results suggest that, as yet the insecticide resistance in B. zonata has not developed, but marked increase in levels of detoxifying enzymes after insecticide exposure in the flies compared to the control group strongly suggests the involvement of studied enzymes in the resistance mechanism.
 
Acknowledgements
 
This research was supported by HEC Pakistan, and lab facilities were provided by University of Sargodha, Sargodha.
 
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