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Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
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E
Earth Science & Climatic Change
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Epidemiology: Open Access
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F
Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
Fermentation Technology
Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
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Food Processing & Technology
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Forest Research: Open Access

G
Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
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Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
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I
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Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Integrative Oncology
Internal Medicine
International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
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L
Liver
Leukemia

M
Marine Science: Research & Development
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Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
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Novel Physiotherapies
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Neurological Disorders
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Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
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0
Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
Oceanography-Open Access
OMICS Journal of Radiology
Osteoporosis and Physical Activity
Oral Health and Dental Management
Oral Hygiene & Health
Biological Systems- Open Access
Organic Chemistry: Current Research
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Otolaryngology

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Pain & Relief 
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political Sciences & public affairs
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Primary Health Care: Open Access  
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R
Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
Rheumatology: Current Research
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S
Sleep Disorders & Therapy
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Spine
Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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Single Cell Biology
Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
Surgery: Current Research

T
Telecommunications System & Management
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Trauma & Treatment
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Vaccines & Vaccination
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Women's health Care

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Yoga & Physical Therapy
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Clinical
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Clinical Case Reports
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Clinical Toxicology
Clinical Trials
Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
Cytology & Histology
Forensic Research
Integrative Oncology
Neurology & Neurophysiology
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Pharmaceutical Sciences
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
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Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
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Developing Drugs
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Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs: Open Access
Pharmacovigilance
Vaccines & Vaccination

Omics
Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
Ergonomics
Glycomics & Lipidomics
Health & Medical Informatics
Metabolomics:Open Access
OMICS Journal of Radiology
Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
Proteomics & Bioinformatics
Transcriptomics

Chemistry
Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
Chemical Sciences Journal
Chromatography & Separation Techniques
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Modern Chemistry & Applications
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Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access

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Advance Research in Meteorological Sciences
Anthropology
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Astrobiology & Outreach
Biodiversity & Endangered Species
Earth Science & Climatic Change
Ecosystem & Ecography
Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
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Geography & Natural Disasters
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Oceanography-Open Access
Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
Pollution Effects & Control
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Accounting & Marketing
Arts and Social Sciences Journal
Business and Economics Journal
Business and Financial Affairs
Civil & Legal Sciences
Defense Management
Entrepreneurship& Organization Management
Hotel & Business Management
Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
Mass Communication & Journalism
political Sciences & public affairs
Stock & Forex Trading
Socialomics
Tourism & Hospitality

Life  Sciences
Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
Advancements in Genetic Engineering
Advances in Crop Science & Technology
Advances in Dairy Research
Aging Science
Agrotechnology
Air & Water Borne Diseases
Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
Autism-Open Access
Bacteriology & Parasitology
Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
Bioenergetics
Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
Biological Systems- Open Access
Biometrics & Biostatistics
Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
Bioremediation & Biodegradation
Biosafety
Biosafety & Health Education
Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Biotechnology & Biomaterials
Bioterrorism & Biodefense
Cell & Developmental Biology
Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
Enzyme Engineering
Fermentation Technology
Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
Forest Research: Open Access
Fungal Genomics and Biology
Gene Technology
Glycobiology
Horticulture
Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
Marine Science: Research & Development
Membrane Science & Technology
Microbial & Biochemical Technology
Molecular Biology
Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
Nutrition & Food Sciences
Plant Pathology & Microbiology
Primatology
Probiotics & Health
Rice Research: Open Access
Single Cell Biology
Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
Tissue Science & Engineering
Tropical Diseases
Transcriptomics: Open Access
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Vitamins & Minerals
Virology & Mycology

Engineering
Advances in Automobile Engineering
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Applied & Computational Mathematics
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Architectural Engineering Technology
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Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Computer Science & Systems Biology
Electrical & Electronics
Food Processing & Technology
Geology and Geosciences
Geophysics & Remote sensing
Industrial Engineering & Management
Information Technology & Software Engineering
International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
Material Sciences & Engineering
Powder Metallurgy & Mining
Telecommunications System & Management
Textile Science & Engineering

Medical Sciences
Addiction Research & Therapy
Allergy & Therapy
Alternative & Integrative Medicine
Alzheimer’s Disease & Parkinsonism
Anaplastology
Anatomy & Physiology
Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
Andrology
Arthritis
Autacoids
Bioceramics Development and Applications
Biology and Medicine
Blood & Lymph
Blood Disorders & Transfusion
Bone Marrow Research
Brain Disorders & Therapy
Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
Cloning & Transgenesis
Community Medicine & Health Education
Dentistry
Depression and Anxiety
Diabetes & Metabolism
Emergency Medicine
Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
Epidemiology: Open Access
Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
General Medicine
General Practice
Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
Gynecology& Obstetrics
Global Economics
Gerontology & Geriatrics Research
Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
Hair: Therapy & Transplantation
Health Care : Current Reviews
Hereditary Genetics
Human Genetics & Embryology
Hypertension-Open Access
International Journal of Genomic Medicine
Internal Medicine
International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Leukemia
Liver
Medical & Surgical Urology
Medical Diagnostic Methods
Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
Metabolic Syndrome
Molecular Biology
Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
Molecular and Genetic Medicine
Mycobacterial Diseases
Neonatal Biology
Nephrology & Therapeutics
Neurological Disorders
Novel Physiotherapies
Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
Nursing & Care
Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
Oral Health and Dental Management
Oral Hygiene & Health
Orthopedic & Muscular System
Osteoporosis & Physical Activity
Otolaryngology
Pain & Relief
Palliative Care & Medicine
Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
Pediatrics & Therapeutics
Primary Health Care: Open Access
Psychological Abnormalities in Children
Psychology & Psychotherapy
Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
Rheumatology: Current Research
Sleep Disorders & Therapy
Spine
Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
Steroids & Hormonal Science
Surgery: Current Research
Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
Translational Medicine
Trauma & Treatment
Tropical Medicine and Surgery
Vascular Medicine & surgery
Women's Health Care
Yoga & Physical Therapy
» Conferences
 
Upcoming Conferences

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2ndInternational Conference on Translational Medicine, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA


International Conference and Exhibition on Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
2nd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA

International Conference on Genetic Engineering & Genetically Modified Organisms, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA

4th World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA

International Conference on Radiology and Imaging, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Dental & Oral Health, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA

International Conference on Oceanography, August 21-23, 2013 Orlando, USA

International Conference on Biodefense & Natural Disasters, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA

World Congress on Endocrinology, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo, August 26-27, 2013 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA

International Conference on Omics Studies, September 04-06, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA

International Symposia on Entomology , September 04-06, 2013 Miami, USA

2nd International Conference on Surgery & Anesthesia, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics , September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers & Biosimilars, September 23-25, 2013 Raleigh, USA

4th World Congress on Biotechnology, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA

International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA

International Conference on Psychology, Autism and Alzheimer's Disease, September 30-October 01, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, September 30-October 02, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Summit on Toxicology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Biochemical & Molecular Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics, October 07-09, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Clinical & Cellular Immunology, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

4th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Natural Products, October 21-23, 2013 Hyderabad, India

3rd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA

3rd International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA

International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs, & STIs October 24-25, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA

International Conference on Fermentation Technology, Bioprocess and Cell Culture, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA

International Conference on Functional and Comparative Genomics & Pharmacogenomics, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Summit on GMP, QA & QC, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Summit on GLP, GCP & Clinical Pharmacology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials, November 18-19, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Summit on Clinical Pharmacy & Dispensing, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA

World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA

3rd World Congress on Virology, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA

International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious diseases, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA

3rd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research, November 20-22, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Nursing & Emergency Medicine, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference on Nanotek & Expo, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine, December 09-11, 2013 Hyderabad, India

2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, February 03-05, 2014 Hyderabad, India





Previous Conferences Organized/Co-organized
2nd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
3rd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Animal & Dairy Sciences, July 23-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia Center City, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA

4th International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA


2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health & Safety, May 21-22, 2013 Beijing, China

4th World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence, May 20-22, 2013 Beijing, China

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA

International Exhibition and Conference on Water Technologies, Environmental Technologies & Renewable Energy, February 13-14, 2013 Mumbai, India

International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity and Weight Management, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia, USA

International Summit on GMP & GCP: USA, Europe, Japan, Asia Pacific, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

International Conference on QA, QC and Validation, December 03-05, 2013 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

2nd International Conference on Nanotek and Expo, December 03-05, 2012 at DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

International Conference on Hair Transplantation & Trichology November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Anesthesia & Perioperative Care November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Toxicology Summit & Expo November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Surgery & Transplantation November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad, India

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India

2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India

International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Cosmetics November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India

Global Biofuels and Bioproducts Summit November 19-21, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Genetic Syndromes & GeneTherapy November 19-21, 2012 at Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics-2012, November 19–21, 2012, Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

2nd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research November 12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics November12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Regenerative and Functional Medicine November 12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Aided Drug Design & QSAR October 29-31, 2012 Chicago, USA
International Conference on Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.

International Expo & Conference on Analytrix & HPLC October 22-24, 2012 Hilton Northbrook, Chicago, USA

International Conference and Expo on Material science and Engineering October 22-24, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference on Clinical and Cellular Immunology October 22-24, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology October 15-17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Otolaryngology October 15-17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International conference on Biothreats and Biodefense October 15-17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference on Tissue Science and Engineering October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance and Clinical Trials October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference on Emerging Cell Therapies October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

Omics International Integrative Biology summit October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

3rdWorld Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism September 24-26, 2012 Marriott Convention Center, Hyderabad, India

2ndInternational Conference on Pediatrics & Gynecology September 24-26, 2012, Hyderabad Marriott Hotel & Convention Centre , Hyderabad, India

International Conference on Translational medicine September 17-19,2012 Holiday Inn San Antonio, Texas, USA

3rd World Congress on Biotechnology September 13-15, 2012 HICC, Hyderabad, India

International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad, India

International Conference on Hotel and Business Management September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India

International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India

International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, USA

2nd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers and Biosimilars September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, TX, USA

International Conference on Central Nervous System September 5-7, 2012 Double by Hilton Philadephia, USA.

International Conference on Occupational Health and Safety Summit September 5-7, 2012 Philadelphia, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on pathology August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy-2012 August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy Aug 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

2nd World Congress on Virology Aug 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Nephrology and Therapeutics August 20-22, 2012, Chicago Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination August 20-22, 2012 at Chicago, USA.

World Congress on Earth Science & Climate Change 21–22 Aug 2012, Chicago, USA 20-22 Aug 2012 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics Aug 13th–15th, 2012 Chicago, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Rheumatology and Therapeutics Aug 14–15, 2012 at Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.

3rd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 26-28, 2012 Marriott Hotel, Hyderabad, India

International Conference & Exhibition on Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA

World Congress on Gastroenterology and Urology March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA

International Conference & Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA

2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha Marriott, USA

2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha Marriott, USA

2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha Marriott, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA

2nd World Congress on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA

2nd world Congress on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques 16-17 December 2011San franscico, USA.

2nd World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism 6-8 December 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

International Conference on Pediatrics & Gynecology 6-8 December 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research 29 Nov-1 Dec 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

2nd World Congress on Biotechnology 29 Nov -1 Dec 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Vaccines & Vaccination 22-24 November 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

2nd World Congress on Biomarkers & Clinical Research 12-14 September 2011 Baltimore, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Virology 5-7 September 2011 Baltimore, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs 6-7 September 2011 Baltimore, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Cancer Science & Therapy 15-17 August 2011 Las Vegas, USA.

International Conference on Clinical Research: Dermatology, Ophthalmology and Cardiology 5-6 July 2011 San Francisco, USA.

International Conference & Exhibition on Proteomics & Bioinformatics 6-8 June 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.

International Conference & Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 6-8 June 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.

2nd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit 6-8 June 2011 Las Vegas, USA.

International Conference on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems 7-8 June Las Vegas, USA.

World Congress on Biotechnology 21-23 March 2011 Hyderabad, India.

International Conference on Diabetes and Metabolism 13-14 December 2010 Santa Clara, USA.

International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research 22-23 November 2010 Santa Clara, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit 01 - 03 November 2010 Hyderabad, India

International Conference & Exhibition on Bioequivalence & Bioavailability 2010, Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 01-03, 2010.

Integrating Glycomics with other Omics in Cancer Detection and Diagnosis, January 19-20, 2010, Stanford University School of Medicine.

3rd World Congress of Gene-2009, December 1-7, 2009.

7th Annual World Congress of International Drug Discovery Science & Technology, October 22-25.

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Research Article Open Access
Effectiveness of Leech Therapy in Gambhira Vata-Rakta (Acute Gout): A Pilot Study
Department of Ayurveda Research, Ayurveda Regional Research Institute - A unit of CCRAS, Department of AYUSH, Government of India, Gangtok, Sikkim, India
*Corresponding author: Ashok Kumar panda
Department of Ayurveda Research
Ayurveda Regional Research Institute - A unit of CCRAS
Department of AYUSH, Government of India
Gangtok, Sikkim, India
Tel: 03592-231494
E-mail: akpanda_06@yahoo.co.in
 
Received January 23, 2012; Accepted March 05, 2012; Published March 08, 2012
 
Citation: Panda AK, Debnath SK (2012) Effectiveness of Leech Therapy in Gambhira Vata-Rakta (Acute Gout): A Pilot Study J Homeopat Ayurv Med 1:108. doi:10.4172/2167-1206.1000108
 
Copyright: © 2012 Panda AK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 
Abstract
 
Bloodletting is a mainstay of Panchakarma therapy as per Susruta. Leech therapy has been indicated as means of bloodletting for both types of Vata-rakta where pain, burning and redness found as per Charaka chikitsa. Medical science has enormous leaps in terms of diagnosis and treatment yet there is renewed interest in leech therapy among modern as well as traditional medicine practitioners. Most of studies of leech therapy are found for plastic surgery and pain reduction in osteo- arthritis. US, FDA also approves leech therapy as tool of skin graft. Therefore, we conducted a non randomized controlled pilot study in between June 2011 to Sep 2011 to assess the efficacy of leech therapy in Gambhira Vatarakta as diagnosed as acute Gout. Twelve patients (eight male and four female) with a mean age of 47 (9) years were treated with two - four leeches for seven days with a follow up to four weeks. Another 10 patents those were not willing for leech therapy was treated with tropical Diclofenac sodium gel for 7 days as control. The mean length of blood socking is 32 (5) minute. The mean quantity of blood sucked by Individual leech per suck is 6 (2) ml. In comparison with control, leech application led to rapid relief of pain and swelling immediate after the detachment of leech. Most significant clinical improvement was noted after 14 days and slightly reduction of serum uric acid were also noted after three weeks of treatment. 90% Patient described the initial leech therapy as a painless and two patients had mild to moderate itching but no local infection was noted in treated group. Our study was limited to small sample size but it had remarkable treatment effect. Larger randomized control trial should be undertaken to study the safety and efficacy of leech therapy in acute gout.
 
Keywords
 
Leech; Bloodletting; Ayurveda; Acute; Gout; Patients
 
Introduction
 
Rakamokshyana (Bloodletting) is an ancient procedure that was utilized in Ayurveda in the setting of a humoral and pathological concept as a general treatment for all ailments, as well as during the middle ages primarily as a remedy for the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases by other traditional medicines of world. The general population was convinced of the efficacy of this treatment for centuries, even requesting it on occasion on a prophylactic basis. Leech has been used from ancient days in Grace, Roma and Arabian countries. Susruta (1000 BC) and Charak (600-200 BC) are two sages from India to describe about leech therapy whereas western literature mentioned about Themison (80-40 BC) – a pupil of Asclepiads is the first person to describe about leech therapy [1].
 
Leech is an Anglo-Saxon word derived from “Loece” meaning “to heal” and the oldest therapeutic book about leech is leechdom [2]. Leech is an: “aquatic worm with a flattened body, tapering toward each end, and terminating in circular flattened discs, the hinder one being the larger of the two. It swims with a vertical undulating motion, and moves when out of water by means of these discs or suckers, fastening itself first by one and then by the other, and alternately stretching out and contracting its body. The mouth is placed in the center of the anterior disc, and furnished with three cartilaginous lens-shaped jaws at the entrance of the alimentary canal. These jaws are lined at their edges with fine, sharp teeth, and meet so as to make a triangular incision in the flesh. The head is furnished with small, raised points, supposed by some to be eyes. Leech belongs to the Phylum Annelida family of fresh-water parasitic invertebrates [3]. It was noticed that leech bites continued to bleed after the leech was withdrawn. This phenomenon was finally explained in 1884 when John Berry Hay croft, a Birmingham chemist, discovered an anticoagulant, called “hirudin”, that the leech injected into the blood, which kept the capillaries flowing [4].
 
The resurgence of Leech therapy in treatment of hypertension, migraines, phlebitis, varicose veins, arthritis, hemorrhoids, and ovarian cysts were introduced in Russia after 1990’s [5,6]. In the United States, plastic surgeons use them to drain blood from wounds after limb or tissue reattachment [7,8]. Some Indian clinical trials of leech therapy in Osteoarthritis, Frostbite, Hypertension, Migraine are in Progress from Unani Research Council [9]. Recent research also supports leech use in relieving pain in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, as well as in treating purpura fulminans, periorbital hematoma, sublingual hematoma, systemic lupus erythematous, and ear infection [10].
 
The prevalence of Gout is now as high as 12.6% may due to increased frequency of obesity and hypertension. Monosodium urate crystal is the active constituent for acute inflammatory reaction in Gout [11]. Colchine, corticosteroid and NSAID are the choices of drugs in acute gout with their proven adverse effect [12]. Leech therapy has been indicated as means of bloodletting for both types of Vata-rakta where pain, burning and redness found as per Charaka chikitsa [13,14]. Some Chinese evidences of Bloodletting in Gout with Cupping and herbal medicinal are there with significant result [15]. Some traditional healers of Sikkim have been practicing leech therapy in acute gout also [16]. But no clinical studies available on leech therapy in acute gout except some review. Therefore, we conducted a non randomized Controlled pilot study in between June 2011 to Sep 2011 to assess the efficacy of leech therapy in Gambhira Vatarakta as diagnosed as acute Gout.
 
Patients and Methods
 
We recruited 22 patients of acute gout from the OPD of our Institute by preset exclusion and inclusion criteria. An informed consent was obtained from all participants in the study and all patients were informed about 2-4 leech application. The patients were male and nonpregnant women in between the age of 18-60 years were included in the study based on the American College of Rheumatology 1980 classification criteria [17]. The major exclusion criteria were treatment with anticoagulants, haemorrhagic disorders, treated with western medication and preexisting arterial insufficiency. The patients were treated with two - four leeches in the affected area for seven days with a follow up to four weeks. Leech (Hirudo medicinalis) was used for the treatment after identified by local zoologist and conformed from literature [18]. The leech were attached, monitored and detach as per the published recommendations [19]. Eligible patients also had at least 1 CBC, blood chemistry, and urinalysis performed within 1 year prior to trial, the results of which revealed no abnormalities that would contraindicate treatment with either study medication.
 
Efficacy & Safety Evaluation
 
The primary outcome (0-7 days) was measured by pain intensity in the index joint by Visual analogous scale (VAS) i.e. 0= no pain & 10= extremely painful on D0, immediately after therapy for 7 days daily with a fellow up for 28 days.
 
The secondary outcome i.e. tenderness (0–3-point scale), and swelling (0–3-point scale) are also assessed. The patient’s and investigator’s global assessments of response to therapy (0 = excellent; 4 = poor) and the investigator’s assessments of study joint tenderness (0 = no pain; 3 = patient states there is pain, winces, and then withdraws), swelling (0 = none; 3 = bulging beyond the joint margins), and erythema (present, absent, or not assessable) were conducted on day0, immediately after therapy for 7 days daily with a fellow up for 28 days. The patients were advised for visit if problem arise in between. The serum uric acid was measured on D0, D1, D4, D8, D14, D21 and D28. The outcome of safety measured by patient’s and investigator’s global response to treatment with any adverse effect was observed during the therapy and observed period.
 
Observations and Results
 
Total 22 patients were recruited in the study and man patient 14 (64%) are dominant in the study with more educated people 16 (73%) are attracted to this Ayurveda therapy (Table 1). All the patients have the classical symptoms of acute gout but elevated uric acid observed in only 10 (83.33%) in leech therapy group and 7 (70%) in control group. Presence of trophy is very less in both the groups. Polyarticular joint pain was found in maximum patients. The most affected joint was great toes in both the groups (Table 2).
 
Table 1: Patient’s demographic variables of studied 22 patients.
 
Table 2: Clinical variables of studied 22 patients.
 
We attached the leech by griping in dry gauze to the site or by placing a drop of glucose on desired site. We noticed that some time leech migrate from one site to another. 90% Patient described the initial leech therapy as a painless. The mean feeding time was 32(5) minute. The mean quantity of blood sucked by Individual leech per suck is 6(2) ml. Three patients had mild to moderate itching and Bleeding from the site of application was seen in 2 patients and was easily managed with compressive dressings. No other complications or infections were noted.
 
The mean changes in primary outcome i.e. Pain (VAS) was significantly reduced immediate after the leech therapy and completely disappear in 28 days, whereas pain in control group was poorly reduced and reappeared after the cessation of application of Diclofenac gel in the affected area (Table 3). The secondary outcomes were also assessed by the patient’s and investigators global assessment to response to the therapy, tenderness, swelling and noting erythema in leech and control groups. Leech group was responded well even after the cessation of treatment but control group had reappeared the symptoms after the cessation of treatment (Table 4,5). The primary and secondary endpoints were also compared in trial and control group and significant response was observed in trial group compared to control group (Table 6).
 
Table 3: Mean changes in the primary outcome (Pain Score-VAS) in different duration of treatment in Studied & Control group.
 
Table 4: Mean changes in secondary outcome in leech therapy group (n=12).
 
Table 5: Mean changes in secondary outcome in control group (n=10).
 
Table 6: Mean change in the primary and secondary end points from baseline in both studied and Control Groups.
 
Discussion
 
A seven days course of leech therapy was effective in relieving pain, tender, swelling, erythema in acute gout and the effect was intact up to 28 days of observed period. These types of pain relieving effect was also observed in other randomized control studies in the treatment of Osteoarthritis and epicondylitis [20,21].
 
The saliva of leeches contains a variety of substances such as hirudin, hyaluronidase, histamine-like vasodilators, collagenase, inhibitors of kallikrein and superoxide production, and poorly characterised anaesthetic and analgesic compounds [22,23]. Therefore, a regional analgesic and antiphlogistic effect by these substances enforced by hyaluronidase as well as counter-irritation might be possible. Leeches might be considered as an additional option in the therapeutic approach to acute Gout. Our study was limited to small sample size but it has remarkable treatment effect. Larger randomized control trial should be undertaken to study the safety and efficacy of leech therapy in acute gout.
 
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