Virology & Mycology Infectious Diseases
 
   Publications A-Z
A
»Accounting & Marketing
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Advanced Chemical Engineering
»Advances in Automobile Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
»Advances in Robotics & Automation
»Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advance Research in Meteorological Sciences
»Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
»Aging Science
»Agrotechnology
»AIDS & Clinical Research
»Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
»Allergy & Therapy
»Alternative & Integrative Medicine
»Air & Water borne Diseases
»Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
»Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
»Anaplastology
»Anatomy & Physiology
»Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
»Andrology-Open Access
»Anesthesia & Clinical Research
»Angiology: Open Access
»Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
»Anthropology
»Applied & Computational Mathematics
»Applied Mechanical Engineering
»Aquaculture Research & Development
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
»Architectural Engineering Technology
»Arthritis
»Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Astrobiology & Outreach
»Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
»Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
»Autism-Open Access
  
B
»Bacteriology & Parasitology
»Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
»Bioceramics Development and Applications
»Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
»Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access
»Biochips & Tissue Chips
»Biodiversity & Endangered Species
»Bioenergetics: Open Access
»Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
»Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
»Biosafety & Health Education
»Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
»Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
»Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Biomusical Engineering
»Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
»Biological Systems- Open Access
»Biology and Medicine
»Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
»Bioremediation & Biodegradation
»Biosafety
»Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
»Biotechnology & Biomaterials
»Bioterrorism & Biodefense
»Blood Disorders & Transfusion
»Blood & Lymph
»Bone Marrow Research
»Brain Disorders & Therapy
»Business and Economics Journal
»Business and Financial Affairs
  
C
»Cancer Science & Therapy
»Climatology & Weather forecasting
»Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
»Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
»Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
»Cell & Developmental Biology
»Cell Science & Therapy
»Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
»Chemical Sciences Journal
»Chemotherapy: Open Access
»Child and Adolescent Behavior
»Chromatography & Separation Techniques
»Civil & Environmental Engineering
»Civil & Legal Sciences
»Clinical & Cellular Immunology
»Clinical Case Reports
»Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
»Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
»Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
»Clinical & Experimental Pathology
»Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
»Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
»Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
»Clinical Research & Bioethics
»Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
»Clinical Toxicology
»Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
»Cloning & Transgenesis
»Community Medicine & Health Education
»Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
»Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
»Cytology & Histology
D
»Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Defense Management
»Dentistry
»Depression and Anxiety
»Developing Drugs
»Diabetes & Metabolism
»Drug Designing
»Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
  
E
»Earth Science & Climatic Change
»Ecosystem & Ecography
»Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
»Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
»Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
»Epidemiology: Open Access
»Emergency Medicine
»Ergonomics
»Electrical & Electronics
»Enzyme Engineering
»Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
  
F
»Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
»Fermentation Technology
»Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
»Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
»Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Food Processing & Technology
»Forensic Biomechanics
»Forensic Research
»Forest Research: Open Access
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
»Fungal Genomics & Biology
  
G
»Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
»Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
»Gene Technology
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
»Glycobiology
»Glycomics & Lipidomics
»Gynecology& Obstetrics
»General Medicine
»General Practice
»Geography & Natural Disasters
»Geology & Geosciences
»Geophysics & Remote Sensing
»Gerontology & Geriatric Research
»Global Economics
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
  
H
»Hair : Therapy & Transplantation
»Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
»Health Care : Current Reviews
»Health & Medical Informatics
»Hereditary Genetics
»Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»Horticulture
»Hotel & Business Management
»Human Genetics & Embryology
»Hydrology: Current Research
»Hypertension- Open Access
  
I
»Industrial Engineering & Management
»Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Infectious Diseases and Therapy
»Information Technology & Software Engineering
»Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»Integrative Oncology
»Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Accounting Research
»International Journal of Advanced Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
»International Journal of Economics and Management Science
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
»International Journal of waste resources
»International Journal of Genomic Medicine
»International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»Innovative Energy Policies
»Immunome Research
  
J
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
  
L
»Liver
» Leukemia
» Lovotics
  
M
»Marine Science: Research & Development
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
»Mass Communication & Journalism
»Material Sciences & Engineering
»Medicinal Chemistry
»Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
»Medical Diagnostic Methods
»Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
»Medical & Surgical Urology
»Membrane Science & Technology
»Metabolic Syndrome
»Metabolomics:Open Access
»Microbial & Biochemical Technology
»Modern Chemistry & Applications
»Molecular Biology
»Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
»Molecular and Genetic Medicine
»Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
»Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
»Mycobacterial Diseases
N
»Natural Products Chemistry & Research
»Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
»Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
»Neonatal Biology
»Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neurology & Neurophysiology
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
»Neurological Disorders
»Novel Physiotherapies
»Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
»Nutrition & Food Sciences
»Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
»Nursing & Care
  
O
»Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
»Oceanography-Open Access
»Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
»OMICS Journal of Radiology
»Osteoporosis and Physical Activity
»Oral Health and Dental Management
»Oral Hygiene & Health
»Organic Chemistry: Current Research
»Orthopedic & Muscular System: Current Research
»Otolaryngology
  
P
»Pain & Relief
»Palliative Care & Medicine
»Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
»Pediatrics & Therapeutics
»Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
»Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
»Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs: Open Access
»Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
»Pharmacovigilance
»Physical Chemistry & Biophysics
»Physical Mathematics
»Plant Pathology & Microbiology
»Plant Biochemistry & Physiology
»Pollution Effects & Control
»political Sciences & public affairs
»Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
»Powder Metallurgy & Mining
»Primatology
»Primary Health Care: Open Access
»Probiotics & Health
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Proteomics & Bioinformatics
»Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Psychology & Psychotherapy
»Psychological Abnormalities in Children
»Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
  
R
»Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
»Rheumatology: Current Research
»Rice Research: Open Access
  
S
» Single Cell Biology
»Sleep Disorders & Therapy
»Socialomics
»Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
»Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
»Spine
»Stem Cell Research & Therapy
»Steroids & Hormonal Science
»Stock & Forex Trading
»Surgery: Current Research
  
T
»Telecommunications System & Management
»Textile Science & Engineering
»Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
»Thermodynamics & Catalysis
»Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
»Tissue Science & Engineering
»Translational Medicine
»Transplantation Technologies & Research
»Transcriptomics: Open Access
»Trauma & Treatment
»Tropical Diseases
»Tropical Medicine and Surgery
»Tourism & Hospitality
  
V
»Vaccines & Vaccination
»Vascular Medicine & surgery
»Veterinary Science & Technology
»Virology & Mycology
»Vitamins & Minerals
»Vortex Science and Technology
  
W
»Women's Health Care
  
Y
»Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
   Browse by Subjects
Clinical
» AIDS & Clinical Research
» Anesthesia & Clinical Research
» Angiology
» Cancer Science & Therapy
» Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
» Cell Science & Therapy
» Chemotherapy
» Child & Adolescent Behavior
» Clinical & Cellular Immunology
» Clinical Case Reports
» Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
» Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
» Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
» Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
» Clinical & Experimental Pathology
» Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
» Clinical Research & Bioethics
» Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
» Clinical Toxicology
» Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
» Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
» Cytology & Histology
» Forensic Research
»Forensic Biomechanics
» Integrative Oncology
»Immunome Research
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
» Neurology & Neurophysiology
» Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
» Stem Cell Research & Therapy
» Transplantation Technologies & Research
   
Pharmaceutical Sciences
» Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
» Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
» Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
» Biochemical Pharmacology
» Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
» Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
» Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
» Developing Drugs
» Drug Designing
» Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
» Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
» Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
» Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
» Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs
» Pharmacovigilance
» Vaccines & Vaccination
   
Chemistry
» Advanced Chemical Engineering
» Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
» Chemical Sciences Journal
» Chromatography & Separation Techniques
» Medicinal Chemistry
» Modern Chemistry & Applications
» Natural Products Chemistry & Research
» Organic Chemistry
» Physical Chemistry & Biophysics
» Plant Biochemistry & Physiology
» Thermodynamics & Catalysis
» Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
   
Environmental
» Anthropology
» Aquaculture Research & Development
» Astrobiology & Outreach
» Biodiversity & Endangered Species
» Earth Science & Climatic Change
» Ecosystem & Ecography
» Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
» Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
» Geography & Natural Disasters
» Hydrology: Current Research
»Innovative Energy Policies
»International Journal of waste resources
» Oceanography-Open Access
» Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
» Pollution Effects & Control
» Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
   
Omics
» Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Ergonomics
» Glycomics & Lipidomics
» Health & Medical Informatics
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
» Metabolomics:Open Access
» OMICS Journal of Radiology
» Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
» Proteomics & Bioinformatics
» Transcriptomics
   
Life Sciences
» Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
» Aging Science
» Agrotechnology
» Air & Water Borne Diseases
» Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
» Autism-Open Access
» Bacteriology & Parasitology
» Biochemistry & Physiology
» Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
» Bioenergetics
» Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
» Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
» Biological Systems
» Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
» Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Bioremediation & Biodegradation
» Biosafety
» Biosafety & Health Education
» Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
» Biotechnology & Biomaterials
» Bioterrorism & Biodefense
» Cell & Developmental Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
» Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
» Enzyme Engineering
» Fermentation Technology
» Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
» Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
» Forest Research
» Fungal Genomics & Biology
» Gene Technology
» Glycobiology
» Horticulture
» Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
» Marine Science: Research & Development
» Membrane Science & Technology
» Microbial & Biochemical Technology
» Molecular Biology
» Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
» Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
» Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
» Nutrition & Food Sciences
» Plant Pathology & Microbiology
» Primatology
» Probiotics & Health
» Rice Research: Open Access
» Single Cell Biology
» Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
» Tissue Science & Engineering
» Tropical Diseases
» Veterinary Science & Technology
» Vitamins & Minerals
»Virology & Mycology
   
Engineering
» Advances in Automobile Engineering
» Advances in Robotics & Automation
» Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
» Applied & Computational Mathematics
» Applied Mechanical Engineering
» Architectural Engineering Technology
» Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
» Biochips & Tissue Chips
» Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
» Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
» Civil & Environmental Engineering
» Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Electrical & Electronics
» Food Processing & Technology
» Geology and Geosciences
» Geophysics & Remote sensing
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
» Industrial Engineering & Management
» Information Technology & Software Engineering
» International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
» Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
» Lovotics
» Material Sciences & Engineering
»Physical Mathematics
» Powder Metallurgy & Mining
» Telecommunications System & Management
» Textile Science & Engineering
»Vortex Science and Technology
   
Medical Sciences
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Allergy & Therapy
» Alternative & Integrative Medicine
» Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
» Anaplastology
» Anatomy & Physiology
» Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
» Andrology
» Arthritis
» Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
» Bioceramics Development and Applications
» Biology and Medicine
» Biomusical Engineering
» Blood & Lymph
» Blood Disorders & Transfusion
» Bone Marrow Research
» Brain Disorders & Therapy
» Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
» Cloning & Transgenesis
» Community Medicine & Health Education
» Dentistry
» Depression and Anxiety
» Diabetes & Metabolism
» Emergency Medicine
» Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
» Epidemiology: Open Access
» Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
» Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
» General Medicine
» General Practice
» Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
» Gynecology& Obstetrics
» Gerontology & Geriatrics Research
» Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
» Hair: Therapy & Transplantation
» Health Care : Current Reviews
» Hereditary Genetics
» Human Genetics & Embryology
» Hypertension-Open Access
» Infectious Diseases & Therapy
» International Journal of Genomic Medicine
» Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
» International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
» Leukemia
» Liver
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
» Medical & Surgical Urology
» Medical Diagnostic Methods
» Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
» Metabolic Syndrome
» Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
» Molecular and Genetic Medicine
» Mycobacterial Diseases
» Neonatal Biology
» Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
» Neurological Disorders
» Novel Physiotherapies
» Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
» Nursing & Care
» Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
» Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
» Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
» Oral Health and Dental Management
» Oral Hygiene & Health
» Orthopedic & Muscular System
» Osteoporosis & Physical Activity
» Otolaryngology
» Pain & Relief
» Palliative Care & Medicine
» Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
» Pediatrics & Therapeutics
» Primary Health Care
» Psychological Abnormalities in Children
» Psychology & Psychotherapy
» Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
» Rheumatology: Current Research
» Sleep Disorders & Therapy
» Spine
» Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
» Steroids & Hormonal Science
» Surgery: Current Research
» Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
» Translational Medicine
» Trauma & Treatment
» Tropical Medicine and Surgery
» Vascular Medicine & surgery
» Women's Health Care
» Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
Management
» Accounting & Marketing
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
» Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Business and Economics Journal
» Business and Financial Affairs
» Civil & Legal Sciences
» Defense Management
» Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
» Global Economics
» Hotel & Business Management
» Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»International Journal of Accounting Research
» International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
» Mass Communication & Journalism
» political Sciences & public affairs
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
» Socialomics
» Stock & Forex Trading
» Tourism & Hospitality
 
   Conferences
Upcoming Conferences
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Translational Medicine, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Predictive, Preventive and Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
» 2nd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» International Conference on Genetic Engineering & Genetically Modified Organisms, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» 4th World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Radiology and Imaging, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Dental & Oral Health, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA
»International Conference on Oceanography, August 21-23, 2013 Orlando, USA
»International Conference on Biodefense & Natural Disasters, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA
» World Congress on Endocrinology, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo, August 26-27, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» 2nd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» International Conference on Omics Studies, September 04-06, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
»International Symposia on Entomology, September 04-06, 2013 Miami, USA
»2nd International Conference on Surgery and Anesthesia, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers & Biosimilars, September 23-25, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»4th World Congress on Biotechnology, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»International Conference on Psychology, Autism and Alzheimer's Disease, September 30-October 01, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, September 30-October 02, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Summit on Toxicology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biochemical & Molecular Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics, October 7-9, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical & Cellular Immunology, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»4th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Natural Products, October 21-23, 2013 Hyderabad, India
» 3rd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»3rd International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs, & STIs, October 24-25, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
» International Conference on Fermentation Technology, Bioprocess and Cell Culture, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»International Conference on Functional and Comparative Genomics & Pharmacogenomics, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Summit on GMP, QA & QC, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Summit on GLP, GCP & Clinical Pharmacology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials, November 18-19, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Summit on Clinical Pharmacy & Dispensing, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»3rd World Congress on Virology, November, 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious diseases, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»3rd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research, November 20-22, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Nursing & Emergency Medicine, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Nanotek & Expo, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine, December 09-11, 2013 Hyderabad, India
»2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, February 03-05, 2014 Hyderabad, India
Previous Conferences Organized/Co-organized
»2nd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Animal & Dairy Sciences, July 23-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»4th International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health & Safety, May 21-22, 2013 Beijing, China
»4th World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence, May 20-22, 2013 Beijing, China
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Exhibition and Conference on Water Technologies, Environmental Technologies & Renewable Energy, February 13-14, 2013 Mumbai, India
»International Summit on GMP & GCP: USA, Europe, Japan, Asia Pacific December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»International Conference on QA, QC and Validation, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»2nd International Conference on Nanotek and Expo, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity and Weight Management, December 03-05, 2012 at DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia, USA.
»International conference on Hair Transplantation and Trichology November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference on Anesthesia & Perioperative Care during November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Toxicology Summit & Expo November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Surgery & Transplantation November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad, India.
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
»2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India
»International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Cosmetics November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Genetic Syndromes & GeneTherapy November 19-21, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA
»Global Biofuels and Bioproducts Summit November 19-21, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics-2012, November 19–21, 2012, Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Cell Science and Stem Cell Research, November 12-14, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»International Conference on Regenerative and Functional Medicine, November 12-14, 2012 at San Antonio, Texas, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics November 12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
» International Confeernce on Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine October 29 - 31, 2012 Chicago, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Aided Drug Design & QSAR October 29-31, 2012, Chicago, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical and Cellular Immunology October 22-24, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference and Expo on Material science and Engineering October 22-24, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
» International Expo and Conference on Analytrix & HPLC October 22-24, 2012 Hilton Northbrook, Chicago, USA.
»International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Otolaryngology October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International conference on Biothreats and Biodefense October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International Conference on Tissue Science and Engineering October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»International conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance and Clinical Trials October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»International Conference on Emerging Cell Therapies October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism which is to be held on September 24-26, 2012 Marriott Convention Center, Hyderabad, India.
»2nd International Conference on Pediatrics & Gynecology September 24-26, 2012, Hyderabad Marriott Hotel & Convention Centre , Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Translational medicine-2012, September 17-19, 2012 Holiday Inn San Antonio, Texas, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Biotechnology September 13-15, 2012 HICC, Hyderabad, India
»International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad, India.
» International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
» International Conference on Hotel and Business Management September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
»International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo September 10-12, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers and Biosimilars September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, TX, USA.
»International Conference on Central Nervous System September 5-7, 2012 Double by Hilton Philadephia, USA.
»International Conference on Occupational Health and Safety Summit September 5-7, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on pathology August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy-2012 August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy August 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Nephrology and Therapeutics August 20-22, 2012 Chicago Chicago, USA.
»2nd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination August 20-22, 2012 at Chicago, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Virology August 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»World Congress on Earth Science & Climate Change August 21-22, 2012 Chicago, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics August 13-15, 2012 Chicago, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Rheumatology & Therapeutics August 14–15, 2012 at Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»2nd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
» International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology &Therapeutics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 26-28, 2012 Marriott Hotel, Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference & Exhibition on Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA.
»World Congress on Gastroenterology and Urology March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA
»2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA.
» 2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA.
»2nd world Congress on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques December 16-17, 2011 San franscico, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism December 6-8, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»World Congress on Pediatrics & Gynecology December 6-8, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research Nov 29-Dec 1, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Biotechnology Nov 29 -Dec 1, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Vaccines & Vaccination November 22-24, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Biomarkers & Clinical Research September 12-14, 2011 Baltimore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Virology September 5-7, 2011 Baltimore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs September 6-7, 2011 Baltimore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Cancer Science & Therapy August 15-17, 2011 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical Research: Dermatology, Ophthalmology and Cardiology July 5-6, 2011 San Francisco, USA.
»International Conference & Exhibition on Proteomics & Bioinformatics June 6-8, 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference & Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Biotechnology June 6-8, 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.
»2nd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit June 6-8, 2011 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems June 7-8, Las Vegas, USA.
»World Congress on Biotechnology March 21-23, 2011 Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Diabetes and Metabolism December 13-14, 2010 Santa Clara, USA.
»International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research November 22-23, 2010 Santa Clara, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit November 01-03, 2010 Hyderabad, India
»International Conference & Exhibition on Bioequivalence & Bioavailability 2010, Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 01-03, 2010.
»Integrating Glycomics with other Omics in Cancer Detection and Diagnosis, January 19-20, 2010, Stanford University School of Medicine.
»3rd World Congress of Gene-2009, December 1-7, 2009.
»7th Annual World Congress of International Drug Discovery Science & Technology, October 22-25.
»2nd WSA-2009, July 18-20, 2009
»1st CCSB-2009, February 16-17, 2009
»2nd PRICPS-4th AOHUPO, June 22-26, 2008
»95th ISCA, January 5-8, 2008

Search :     Advanced Search 

HomeHome   |   Join Join   |   Contact Contact     

Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy Video Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy Linkedin - Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy Twitter - Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy Facebook - Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy Blog
Journal Details
 
Article Usage
Total Views: 0
[From(publication date):
-- Feb 28, 2015]
Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views :
PDF Downloads :
XML Downloads :
 
 
 
 
Review Article Open Access
Contributions of Increased Dietary Linoleic Acid and Fructose to the Metabolic Syndrome
Office of Biomedical Graduate Education, Georgetown University, Washington,USA
*Corresponding author: Dr. Gabriel E. Shaya
Office of Biomedical Graduate Education
Georgetown University, SE404 Medical Dental Building
3900 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
E-mail: gabeshaya@gmail.com
 
Received November 29, 2011; Accepted February 10, 2012; Published February 14, 2012
 
Citation: Shaya GE (2012) Contributions of Increased Dietary Linoleic Acid and Fructose to the Metabolic Syndrome. J Obes Weig los Ther 2:114. doi:10.4172/2165- 7904.1000114
 
Copyright: © 2012 Shaya GE. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 
Abstract
 
Modern diets are characterized by an increase in fructose consumption largely facilitated by the propagation of high fructose corn syrup and the increased usage of all caloric sweeteners in a growing variety of food products. Accordingly, the human diet has seen a large increase in linoleic acid consumption over the last several decades, primarily coming from seed oils especially soybean and canola oil. It follows that the modern diet differs from the diet that was selected for by evolution and it has been suggested that the modern diet has contributed to the increased prevalence of chronic diseases currently observed. Fructose, once only found primarily in fruits, is now widely available and consumed to great excess. It is distinct from other sugars in the way it is absorbed, processed and metabolized. High levels of fructose intake have been correlated with various conditions of the metabolic syndrome, including hyperuricemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, leptin resistance, obesity and dyslipidemia. Likewise, linoleic acid consumption has increased with the advent of the industrial age. Modern industrial societies consume as much as 20:1 n to 6:n-3, whereas the consumption ratio of our Paleolithic ancestors has been predicted to be as low as 1:1. Radical change in our EFA profile has been associated with increased levels of atherosclerotic oxidized LDL-C and hypoadiponectinemia, which has been shown to be a strong indicator of metabolic syndrome. The studies covered in this review suggest that straying from the evolutionary selected diet has contributed to the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in industrialized societies worldwide. Accordingly a comprehensive effort would be advised, to restore the diet to that which humans were evolved to consume. This may suggest limiting fructose consumption to that found from natural sources and limiting linoleic acid consumption by avoiding overconsumption of seed oils for example.
 
Keywords
 
Linoleic acid; Obesity; Metabolic syndrome; Paleolithic diet; Fructose; Hypertension; Insulin resistance
 
Introduction
 
Modern day humans live in an environment extremely different from that inhabited by our ancestors of the Paleolithic age over forty thousand years ago. With the development of agricultural methods over ten thousand years ago, humans have discovered new ways to process and extract foods, increasing the variety and composition of their diet in the process. However, our genes have not changed, recording at most perhaps a 0.005% change and staying essentially similar to the genes of our ancestors of the Paleolithic age. As a consequence, there has been little time for humans to adapt to a new nutritional environment [1]. With an exponentially growth in the world population, humans have been pressured to develop fast, easy and economic methods of providing sustenance. This general review outlines some of the ways that fructose and linoleic acid have contributed to the modulation of the metabolic syndrome from an evolutionary perspective. Most recently, the machinery of the industrial age has facilitated the growth of agricultural products and these new products have been introduced into the diet of the population. Plant and seed based products, now cheaper to produce, have replaced animal based products in many parts of the diet of an industrialized society. Subsequently, the apparent dietary characteristics of industrialized civilizations are (1) an increase in total caloric consumption and a decrease in energy expenditure, (2)an increase in the consumption of saturated fat, omega-6 fatty acids and a decrease in omega-3 fatty acids, (3)a decrease in complex carbohydrates and fiber, (4) an increase in the consumption of cereal grains and a decrease in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, (5) a decrease in the consumption of protein, antioxidants and calcium and (6)an increase in the consumption of sucrose-sweetened juices, soft drinks, foods and desserts[1]. Although the changes in the human diet have not caused reproductive restriction in the species, there is evidence that the modern diet has contributed to a higher incidence of several diseases including atherosclerosis, type II diabetes, arthritis, hypertension and certain epithelial cancers [1]. An American Heart Association [2] scientific statement has reviewed the pivotal role of triglyceridesin lipid metabolism and reaffirmed that although triglyceride was not directly atherogenic, it nevertheless represented an important biomarker of CVD risk because of its association with atherogenicremnant particles and apo CIII.
 
This review will begin by investigating the coincident increases of fructose and linoleic acid consumption with the increased incidence of the metabolic syndrome. The review will then proceed to describe the metabolism of fructose and linoleic acid and reveal how those have contributed to the rising rates of metabolic disease, noting the negative effects of new diet trends.
 
Coincidence of Modern-Age Dietary Trends with the Metabolic Syndrome
 
Increase in fructose consumption
 
Fructose is a single sugar monosaccharide found naturally and almost exclusively in fruits. It is also commonly found in the disaccharide sucrose (table sugar) in a 50:50 combination with glucose, another monosaccharide. Alternatively, fructose is contained in corn-based, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), which contains varying degrees of fructose concentrations, most often around 55% concentration. Since its discovery in 1957 Japan HFCS has increasingly been used as a replacement to sucrose in processed foods and beverages such as jams, jellies, dairy products, baked desserts, cereals, canned fruits, candies, juices, sodas and sports drinks [3]. Of these products, sweetened beverages comprise nearly two-thirds of consumed HFCS in the United States. The substitution of HFCS for sucrose by manufacturers may be explained by its several advantages in marketing and production. These include a significantly sweeter taste, reduced cost and increased shelf-life [3]. HFCS has accordingly become a significant source of dietary fructose in the modern diet. Marked increases in HFCS consumption began in 1970. At this time HFCS represented less than 1% of caloric sweeteners available for consumption in the United States. Three decades later, in 2000, HFCS represented 61.2% of caloric sweeteners available for consumption [3]. This increase in HFCS availability is not perceived as a substitution of sucrose in products, but rather as an addition to the overall fructose in the diet. Data from the United States Department of Agriculture indicate that annual per capita sucrose consumption has increased from 73 lbs to 95 lbs in the same time frame that HFCS annual per capita consumption rose from <1lb to nearly 50lbs [4]. Apart from HFCS, fructose consumption from all sources has seen significant growth in the 20th century. The average per capita consumption of fructose from natural sources of fruits and vegetables is estimated to be 15gm/day [4]. Prior to World War II fructose consumption had grown slightly to 16-24g/day [4]. Decades later, a 1977-1978 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey found fructose consumption to be 37g/day (8% of caloric intake) [4]. At this time HFCS began to penetrate the markets of modern societies and fructose consumption shot up to 54.7 gm/day (10.2g% of caloric intake) by 1994 as judged by NHANES III data [4]. BY 1998, fructose consumption had reached 76g/day, representing 11.5 % of caloric intake [3].
 
Increase in linoleic acid consumption
 
Linoleic acid (LA) is an omega-6 fatty acid (n-6) and one of two essential fatty acids (EFA); the other being alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) and omega-3 fatty acid (n-3). These are each characterized by the location of their first double bond counting from the methyl end of the fatty acid molecule. Therefore, the characteristic double bond of LA is found between its 6th and 7th carbon atoms, whereas the double bond of ALA is found between its 3rd and 4th carbon atoms [5]. Their classifications as “essential” fatty acids are due to the fact that they are not produced by the body and therefore must be attained in the diet. LA is naturally found mostly in the seeds of plants, while ALA is contained in the leaf components of vegetables [5]. LA and ALA are both termed short chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (SC-PUFA) and when metabolized, convert to longer desaturated long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Humans metabolize LA by converting it to arachadonic acid (AA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and dihomo-gammalinolenic acid (DGLA. On the other hand, ALA is converted to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [6]. These LC-PUFA’s have significant physiological importance and have been implicated in several disease states including psychiatric disease, cardiovascular disease and neurodevelopmental deficits [7]. As diet is the only source of ALA and LA, maintaining a diet to obtain optimal levels of these precursors and their subsequent metabolites is essential to achieving ideal health outcomes.
 
It is suspected that since the Paleolithic age and the dawn of the agricultural development, increased seed based product consumption has skewed the evolutionarily established fatty acid profile. Blasbalg et al. [7] conducted an analysis of trends in EFA consumption and human tissue content ranging from 1909 to 1999 in the United States. They used food-availability data from the Economic Research Service of the USDA and identified three hundred seventy-three different foods as sources of fatty acids. They calculated annual per capita consumption accounting for industrial usage, seed and feed usage, year-end inventories, processing, spoilage and waste. Their findings were that between 1909 and 1999 the estimated per capita consumption of butter and lard decreased by over 70%, while consumption of margarine, shortening and beef tallow increased (1038%, 170% and 371% respectively). The most significant increases in fat consumption came from soybean oil, which increased from.009kg in 1909 to 11.64kg in 1999 (well over 1000 fold increase) and rose from.006% of caloric intake in 1909 to becoming the fourth major contributor of food calories at 7.38% of caloric intake in 1999. The study also confirmed an increase in sugar consumption, noting that it had outpaced dairy consumption starting in 1972. With regards to the trends of specific fatty acid content in consumed foods, the ratio for total n-6 : n-3 increased significantly from 6.7 in 1909 to 9.6 in 1999 (a 42% increase). The large increase in soybean oil consumption is noted as the major contributor to this ratio increase.
 
Increase in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome
 
Over the last several centuries and particularly the twentieth century, the human diet has dramatically changed. Our modern diet has rapidly outpaced the ability of our genes to adapt to our new dietary environment and thus, there has been an observed increase in several of the conditions that when co-occurring, are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The World Health Organization (WHO) released a report in 1998 describing the criteria for diagnosingMetS. MetS, as defined by the WHO is characterized by: (1) diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or insulin resistance (2) two of the following: (a) Hypertension: Blood pressure (BP)≥140/90 mmHg (b) Dyslipidemia: Triglycerides (TG) ≥1.695 mmol/L and highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ≥ 0.9mmol/L (male) and HDL-C ≥ 1.0mmol/L (female) (c) Central Obesity: Body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30kg/m2 or waist : hip ratio ≥ 0.90 (male); ≥.85 (female). (d) Microalbuminuria: urinary albumin excretion ratio ≥ 20 μg/min or albumin: creatine: ratio ≥ 30mg/g [8]. The diagnosis of MetS is used to indicate a large increase in the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus type II (DMII). Risk factors associated with the development of MetS include aging, rheumatic disease, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, physical inactivity, stress, obesity, lipodystrophy and schizophrenia [9]. The first noted instances of MetS date back to around 1920, yet MetS has only been commonly referred to in diagnoses since 1970. Accordingly, attempts to track the progression of MetS over the century have been difficult. Ford et al. [10] conducted a study to track recent prevalence trends of MetS using NHANES data from 1988-1994 to 1999-2000. The diagnosis of MetS was identified by the presence of three of the following five criteria: (1) Central Obesity: waist circumference >102 cm (male); > 88 (female), (2) Hypertriglyceridemia: TG 1.695 mmol/L. (3) Low HDL-C: <1.036mmol/L (male); <1.295 mmol/L (female), (4) Hypertension: Blood pressure ≥ 130/85mmHg, (5) High Fasting Glucose: Glucose ≥ 5.6 mmol/L. The study revealed a significant increase in the incidence of MetS between these two time periods for those 20 years of age and older, marked at approximately 50 million cases in 1990 compared to approximately 64 million cases in 2000 (a 28% increase). The increase was particularly salient among women. Most evident was an increase in MetS among those without DMII. This increase was attributed mostly to amplified prevalence of obesity and hypertension (HTN), while hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C also accounted for the increase in MetS. Central obesity in the overall population was attributed as the major contributor to MetS as prevalence rose from 22.9% to 30.5% in the U.S. from 1990-2000. It is suggested that obesity is the major contributor to MetS and that comprehensive efforts to reduce obesity may be an affective measure to reduce cases of MetS and its affiliated disease states.
 
Processing of Fructose and Linoleic Acid and Their Contributions to the Metabolic Syndrome
 
Fructose
 
Fructose, insulin and leptin: Fructose is absorbed in the duodenum and jejunum by a sodium independent process whereby it enters the portal circulation. Once in circulation, fructose is transported to the liver to be converted to glucose, or passes into the general circulation [3]. Fructose transported to the liver may increase de novo lipogenic processes in the liver compared to glucose, which suggests a different metabolic process from glucose [3]. Additionally, fructose does not stimulate insulin release from the pancreas, because the pancreas lacks the Glut-5 transporter for fructose [11]. Insulin signals the secretion of the hormone leptin from adipocytes, which has been demonstrated to inhibit food intake [12]. Accordingly, because pancreatic insulin secretion is not sensitive to fructose, the ingestion of fructose may contribute to over eating and obesity and may be a contributor to the metabolic syndrome [13].
 
Fructose increases de novo lipogenesis: The process of fructose metabolism, once fructose is transported into the liver cell by an insulin independent process via a Glut-5 transporter is distinct from the metabolism of glucose and may contribute to metabolic syndrome. Once in the cell, fructose is phosphorylated to frucstose-1- phosphate and then is cleaved by aldolase to form precursors for TG synthesis [14]. Bantle et al. [15] found that plasma TG levels increased significantly in men, but not women, who were fed a diet containing 32% fructose compared to 17% fructose. Hypertriglyceridemia has been identified as a characteristic marker of metabolic syndrome and thus overconsumption of fructose may contribute to metabolic syndrome by this contribution.
 
Fructose causes hyperuricemia: The metabolism of fructose in the hepatocyte has been shown to result in production of uric acid. As fructose is phosphorylated to fructose-1-phosphate, an ATP is converted to ADP and then to AMP, which results in the generation of uric acid [16]. Hyperuricemia is observed as prevalent among humans with metabolic syndrome and is thought to exacerbate the metabolic syndrome by causing endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Nakagawa et al. [16] demonstrated that fructose–induced metabolic syndrome was significantly improved by administering allopurinol, a drug used to treat hyperuricemia. The fructose-fed rats demonstrated hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia, increased body weight and hypertriglyceridemia. All of these affects were reversed by the administration of allopurinol. The study concludes that overconsumption of fructose may contribute significantly to metabolic syndrome by its affect on uric acid production.
 
Linoleic acid
 
Linoleic acid promotes oxidation of LDL-C: The risk of atherosclerosis is thought to be increased by a high level of oxidized LDL-C. Once oxidized, LDL-C particles are recognized by scavenger receptors expressed on the surface of macrophages and the LDL-C is consumed to form a foam cell on the vessel wall [17]. The foam cell secretes inflammatory cytokines, promoting the formation of atherosclerotic plaque [17]. It has been demonstrated that LA consumption in the diet leads to higher LA content within LDL-C particles, causing them to be more susceptible to oxidation [18]. This effect is especially pronounced in small dense LDL-C particles, which are thought to be primarily responsible for atherosclerotic plaque formation [18].
 
n-6: n-3 ratio, adiponectin and the metabolic syndrome
 
ALA (n-3) and LA (n-6) are both 18-carbon essential fatty acids and must be converted to their 20-carbon and 22-carbon forms in order to be biologically active. As mentioned previously, ALA is primarily converted to DHA and EPA, while LA is primarily converted to AA [19]. Each of these conversion pathways shares the same set of enzymes and therefore the ALA and LA precursors compete to be converted into their active forms. Additionally, it has been established that once converted, the n-6 and n-3 fatty acid products cannot interconvert. The action of n-3 fatty acids are generally deemed as antiinflammatory while the actions of n-6 fatty acids are generally proinflammatory, yet also essential for proper function [19]. Given that both EFA’s share a common metabolic pathway, which they compete for, it is essential to maintain an appropriate n-6:n-3 ratio according to our evolutionarily established set point, in order to maintain proper health. As previously described, the n-6: n-3 ratio has sharply increased in a short enough time, such that human genes could not have possibly adapted to the new dietary intake of EFA’s. Recent research has sought to analyze the effects of our new n-6: n-3 ratio on health and more research is warranted on this topic. It has been suggested that reducing the n-6:n-3 ratio from levels found in the modern-diet will increase the levels of adiponectin. Adiponectin is a protein hormone found abundantly in adipose tissue and is thought to improve insulin sensitivity and inhibit vascular inflammation by interfering with the action of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNA-α) on endothelial cells [20]. Guebre-Egziabher et al. [21] conducted an intervention study where an experimental group of 17 subjects reduced their n-6:n-3 ratio intake to 2.2 from 32.2. These subjects were shown to have a significant increase in adiponectin and fatty oxidation and a significant decrease in glucose oxidation rate in LDL-C and TNF-α. As the function of adiponectin is integral to glucose homeostasis, adiponectin deficiency is suspected to be a contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome. Renaldi et al. [20] conducted a study comparing adiponectin levels in 40 individuals with metabolic syndrome to those in 40 individuals without metabolic syndrome. Those included in the study were between the ages of 22 and 55 and metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by a waist circumference > 90cm (male); > 80cm (female) and 2 of the following criteria: (1) Hypertriglyceridemia: TG > 150 mg/dL (1.7 mmol/L) (2) Low HDL-C: HDL<0.9 mmol/L (male); < 1.29mmol/L (female) (3) Hypertension: Blood pressure > 130/85 mmHg (4) Increased fasting glucose: fasting glucose > 5.6 mmol/L. The study concluded that those diagnosed with metabolic syndrome were six times more likely to have hypoadiponectinemia and 5.7 times more likely to be insulin resistant than subjects without metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, variations have been noted in the rate of development of the metabolic syndrome, some related to genotype. For example, Gong et al. [22] have found that genetic variation in the Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 (SCD1) gene may play a role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. SCDI is indeed a key regulator of lipid metabolism. As well, Duan et al. [23] have shown significant genetic contributions to the sub-phenotypes of the metabolic syndrome. They purport that although pleiotropic genetic control may exist for some physiologically similar phenotypes, their results do not support a common genetic mechanism among the phenotypes that they observed in their twin-based heritability study in the Chinese population.
 
Conclusion
 
Modern diets are characterized by an increase in fructose consumption largely facilitated by the propagation of high fructose corn syrup and the increased usage of all caloric sweeteners in a growing variety of food products. Similarly, the human diet has seen a large increase in linoleic acid consumption over the last several decades, primarily coming from seed oils especially soybean and canola oil. It follows that the modern diet differs from the diet that was selected for by evolution and it has been suggested that the modern diet has contributed to a variety of chronic diseases. Fructose, once only found primarily in fruits, is now widely available and consumed to great excess. It is distinct from other sugars in the way it is absorbed, processed and metabolized. High levels of fructose intake have been correlated with various conditions of the metabolic syndrome including hyperuricemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, leptin resistance, obesity and dyslipidemia. Likewise, linoleic acid consumption has increased with the advent of the industrial age. Modern industrial societies consume as much as 20:1 n-6: n-3, whereas the consumption ratio of our Paleolithic ancestors has been predicted to be as low as 1:1. Radical change in our EFA profile has been associated with increased levels of atherosclerotic oxidized LDL-C and hypoadiponectinemia, which has been shown to be a strong indicator of the metabolic syndrome. The studies covered in this review suggest that straying from the evolutionary selected diet has contributed to the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in industrialized societies worldwide. Some variations by phenotype have been noted that warrant further study. It remains that given the epidemiology of the metabolic syndrome, the findings summarized in this review and the position statement of the American Heart Association and others, a comprehensive effort is warranted, in order to restore the diet to that which humans have evolved to consume. This would imply limiting fructose consumption to that found in natural sources and limiting linoleic acid consumption by avoiding overconsumption of seed oils. Further studies should explore the trends in associated morbidities, such as visceral adiposity, obesity and dyslipidemia. In addition, further discussions should include the relevant dose-dependence of the negative metabolic effect and finally, the impact of gender, race and age on fructose metabolic effects.
 
References
 























 
 
 
This Article
DOWNLOAD
» XML (68 kB)
» PDF (1,263 kB)
» Citation
   
»
Export citation
»
Blog this article
   
CONTRIBUTE
» Write a Response
» Read other Responses
» Publishing with OPG
   
SHARE
» E-mail This Article
» Print This Article
» Rights and Permissions
   
Share
EXPLORE
Related Article at
» Pubmed
» DOAJ
» Scholar Google
 
 
 
 
Untitled Document
| More
 
OMICS Publishing Group is the member of / publishing partner of/source content provider to
      
RefSeek
AcademicKeys NewJour Electronic Journals LibrarySafetyLit
Website Protected by  McAfee SECURE sites help keep you safe from identity theft, credit card fraud, spyware, spam, viruses and online scams
OMICS Publishing Group, An Open Access Publisher and Scientific Events Organizer for the Advancement of Science & Technology. All Published content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License
Please ensure that you are using the latest version of Adobe reader. If you do not have this software installed on your system, you can download the free Adobe Reader by simply clicking on the following link: http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html
Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version Copyright © 2013 OMICS Group, All Rights Reserved.