Virology & Mycology Infectious Diseases
 
   Publications A-Z
A
»Accounting & Marketing
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Advanced Chemical Engineering
»Advances in Automobile Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
»Advances in Robotics & Automation
»Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advance Research in Meteorological Sciences
»Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
»Aging Science
»Agrotechnology
»AIDS & Clinical Research
»Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
»Allergy & Therapy
»Alternative & Integrative Medicine
»Air & Water borne Diseases
»Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
»Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
»Anaplastology
»Anatomy & Physiology
»Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
»Andrology-Open Access
»Anesthesia & Clinical Research
»Angiology: Open Access
»Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
»Anthropology
»Applied & Computational Mathematics
»Applied Mechanical Engineering
»Aquaculture Research & Development
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
»Architectural Engineering Technology
»Arthritis
»Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Astrobiology & Outreach
»Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
»Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
»Autism-Open Access
  
B
»Bacteriology & Parasitology
»Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
»Bioceramics Development and Applications
»Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
»Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access
»Biochips & Tissue Chips
»Biodiversity & Endangered Species
»Bioenergetics: Open Access
»Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
»Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
»Biosafety & Health Education
»Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
»Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
»Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Biomusical Engineering
»Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
»Biological Systems- Open Access
»Biology and Medicine
»Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
»Bioremediation & Biodegradation
»Biosafety
»Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
»Biotechnology & Biomaterials
»Bioterrorism & Biodefense
»Blood Disorders & Transfusion
»Blood & Lymph
»Bone Marrow Research
»Brain Disorders & Therapy
»Business and Economics Journal
»Business and Financial Affairs
  
C
»Cancer Science & Therapy
»Climatology & Weather forecasting
»Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
»Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
»Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
»Cell & Developmental Biology
»Cell Science & Therapy
»Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
»Chemical Sciences Journal
»Chemotherapy: Open Access
»Child and Adolescent Behavior
»Chromatography & Separation Techniques
»Civil & Environmental Engineering
»Civil & Legal Sciences
»Clinical & Cellular Immunology
»Clinical Case Reports
»Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
»Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
»Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
»Clinical & Experimental Pathology
»Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
»Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
»Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
»Clinical Research & Bioethics
»Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
»Clinical Toxicology
»Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
»Cloning & Transgenesis
»Community Medicine & Health Education
»Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
»Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
»Cytology & Histology
D
»Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Defense Management
»Dentistry
»Depression and Anxiety
»Developing Drugs
»Diabetes & Metabolism
»Drug Designing
»Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
  
E
»Earth Science & Climatic Change
»Ecosystem & Ecography
»Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
»Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
»Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
»Epidemiology: Open Access
»Emergency Medicine
»Ergonomics
»Electrical & Electronics
»Enzyme Engineering
»Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
  
F
»Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
»Fermentation Technology
»Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
»Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
»Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Food Processing & Technology
»Forensic Biomechanics
»Forensic Research
»Forest Research: Open Access
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
»Fungal Genomics & Biology
  
G
»Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
»Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
»Gene Technology
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
»Glycobiology
»Glycomics & Lipidomics
»Gynecology& Obstetrics
»General Medicine
»General Practice
»Geography & Natural Disasters
»Geology & Geosciences
»Geophysics & Remote Sensing
»Gerontology & Geriatric Research
»Global Economics
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
  
H
»Hair : Therapy & Transplantation
»Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
»Health Care : Current Reviews
»Health & Medical Informatics
»Hereditary Genetics
»Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»Horticulture
»Hotel & Business Management
»Human Genetics & Embryology
»Hydrology: Current Research
»Hypertension- Open Access
  
I
»Industrial Engineering & Management
»Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Infectious Diseases and Therapy
»Information Technology & Software Engineering
»Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»Integrative Oncology
»Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Accounting Research
»International Journal of Advanced Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
»International Journal of Economics and Management Science
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
»International Journal of waste resources
»International Journal of Genomic Medicine
»International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»Innovative Energy Policies
»Immunome Research
  
J
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
  
L
»Liver
» Leukemia
» Lovotics
  
M
»Marine Science: Research & Development
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
»Mass Communication & Journalism
»Material Sciences & Engineering
»Medicinal Chemistry
»Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
»Medical Diagnostic Methods
»Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
»Medical & Surgical Urology
»Membrane Science & Technology
»Metabolic Syndrome
»Metabolomics:Open Access
»Microbial & Biochemical Technology
»Modern Chemistry & Applications
»Molecular Biology
»Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
»Molecular and Genetic Medicine
»Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
»Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
»Mycobacterial Diseases
N
»Natural Products Chemistry & Research
»Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
»Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
»Neonatal Biology
»Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neurology & Neurophysiology
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
»Neurological Disorders
»Novel Physiotherapies
»Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
»Nutrition & Food Sciences
»Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
»Nursing & Care
  
O
»Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
»Oceanography-Open Access
»Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
»OMICS Journal of Radiology
»Osteoporosis and Physical Activity
»Oral Health and Dental Management
»Oral Hygiene & Health
»Organic Chemistry: Current Research
»Orthopedic & Muscular System: Current Research
»Otolaryngology
  
P
»Pain & Relief
»Palliative Care & Medicine
»Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
»Pediatrics & Therapeutics
»Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
»Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
»Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs: Open Access
»Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
»Pharmacovigilance
»Physical Chemistry & Biophysics
»Physical Mathematics
»Plant Pathology & Microbiology
»Plant Biochemistry & Physiology
»Pollution Effects & Control
»political Sciences & public affairs
»Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
»Powder Metallurgy & Mining
»Primatology
»Primary Health Care: Open Access
»Probiotics & Health
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Proteomics & Bioinformatics
»Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Psychology & Psychotherapy
»Psychological Abnormalities in Children
»Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
  
R
»Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
»Rheumatology: Current Research
»Rice Research: Open Access
  
S
» Single Cell Biology
»Sleep Disorders & Therapy
»Socialomics
»Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
»Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
»Spine
»Stem Cell Research & Therapy
»Steroids & Hormonal Science
»Stock & Forex Trading
»Surgery: Current Research
  
T
»Telecommunications System & Management
»Textile Science & Engineering
»Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
»Thermodynamics & Catalysis
»Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
»Tissue Science & Engineering
»Translational Medicine
»Transplantation Technologies & Research
»Transcriptomics: Open Access
»Trauma & Treatment
»Tropical Diseases
»Tropical Medicine and Surgery
»Tourism & Hospitality
  
V
»Vaccines & Vaccination
»Vascular Medicine & surgery
»Veterinary Science & Technology
»Virology & Mycology
»Vitamins & Minerals
»Vortex Science and Technology
  
W
»Women's Health Care
  
Y
»Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
   Browse by Subjects
Clinical
» AIDS & Clinical Research
» Anesthesia & Clinical Research
» Angiology
» Cancer Science & Therapy
» Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
» Cell Science & Therapy
» Chemotherapy
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» Clinical & Cellular Immunology
» Clinical Case Reports
» Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
» Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
» Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
» Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
» Clinical & Experimental Pathology
» Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
» Clinical Research & Bioethics
» Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
» Clinical Toxicology
» Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
» Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
» Cytology & Histology
» Forensic Research
»Forensic Biomechanics
» Integrative Oncology
»Immunome Research
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
» Neurology & Neurophysiology
» Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
» Stem Cell Research & Therapy
» Transplantation Technologies & Research
   
Pharmaceutical Sciences
» Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
» Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
» Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
» Biochemical Pharmacology
» Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
» Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
» Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
» Developing Drugs
» Drug Designing
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» Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
» Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs
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Chemistry
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» Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
   
Environmental
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» Earth Science & Climatic Change
» Ecosystem & Ecography
» Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
» Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
» Geography & Natural Disasters
» Hydrology: Current Research
»Innovative Energy Policies
»International Journal of waste resources
» Oceanography-Open Access
» Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
» Pollution Effects & Control
» Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
   
Omics
» Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Ergonomics
» Glycomics & Lipidomics
» Health & Medical Informatics
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
» Metabolomics:Open Access
» OMICS Journal of Radiology
» Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
» Proteomics & Bioinformatics
» Transcriptomics
   
Life Sciences
» Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
» Aging Science
» Agrotechnology
» Air & Water Borne Diseases
» Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
» Autism-Open Access
» Bacteriology & Parasitology
» Biochemistry & Physiology
» Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
» Bioenergetics
» Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
» Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
» Biological Systems
» Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
» Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Bioremediation & Biodegradation
» Biosafety
» Biosafety & Health Education
» Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
» Biotechnology & Biomaterials
» Bioterrorism & Biodefense
» Cell & Developmental Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
» Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
» Enzyme Engineering
» Fermentation Technology
» Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
» Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
» Forest Research
» Fungal Genomics & Biology
» Gene Technology
» Glycobiology
» Horticulture
» Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
» Marine Science: Research & Development
» Membrane Science & Technology
» Microbial & Biochemical Technology
» Molecular Biology
» Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
» Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
» Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
» Nutrition & Food Sciences
» Plant Pathology & Microbiology
» Primatology
» Probiotics & Health
» Rice Research: Open Access
» Single Cell Biology
» Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
» Tissue Science & Engineering
» Tropical Diseases
» Veterinary Science & Technology
» Vitamins & Minerals
»Virology & Mycology
   
Engineering
» Advances in Automobile Engineering
» Advances in Robotics & Automation
» Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
» Applied & Computational Mathematics
» Applied Mechanical Engineering
» Architectural Engineering Technology
» Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
» Biochips & Tissue Chips
» Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
» Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
» Civil & Environmental Engineering
» Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Electrical & Electronics
» Food Processing & Technology
» Geology and Geosciences
» Geophysics & Remote sensing
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
» Industrial Engineering & Management
» Information Technology & Software Engineering
» International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
» Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
» Lovotics
» Material Sciences & Engineering
»Physical Mathematics
» Powder Metallurgy & Mining
» Telecommunications System & Management
» Textile Science & Engineering
»Vortex Science and Technology
   
Medical Sciences
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Allergy & Therapy
» Alternative & Integrative Medicine
» Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
» Anaplastology
» Anatomy & Physiology
» Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
» Andrology
» Arthritis
» Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
» Bioceramics Development and Applications
» Biology and Medicine
» Biomusical Engineering
» Blood & Lymph
» Blood Disorders & Transfusion
» Bone Marrow Research
» Brain Disorders & Therapy
» Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
» Cloning & Transgenesis
» Community Medicine & Health Education
» Dentistry
» Depression and Anxiety
» Diabetes & Metabolism
» Emergency Medicine
» Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
» Epidemiology: Open Access
» Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
» Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
» General Medicine
» General Practice
» Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
» Gynecology& Obstetrics
» Gerontology & Geriatrics Research
» Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
» Hair: Therapy & Transplantation
» Health Care : Current Reviews
» Hereditary Genetics
» Human Genetics & Embryology
» Hypertension-Open Access
» Infectious Diseases & Therapy
» International Journal of Genomic Medicine
» Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
» International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
» Leukemia
» Liver
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
» Medical & Surgical Urology
» Medical Diagnostic Methods
» Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
» Metabolic Syndrome
» Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
» Molecular and Genetic Medicine
» Mycobacterial Diseases
» Neonatal Biology
» Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
» Neurological Disorders
» Novel Physiotherapies
» Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
» Nursing & Care
» Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
» Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
» Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
» Oral Health and Dental Management
» Oral Hygiene & Health
» Orthopedic & Muscular System
» Osteoporosis & Physical Activity
» Otolaryngology
» Pain & Relief
» Palliative Care & Medicine
» Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
» Pediatrics & Therapeutics
» Primary Health Care
» Psychological Abnormalities in Children
» Psychology & Psychotherapy
» Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
» Rheumatology: Current Research
» Sleep Disorders & Therapy
» Spine
» Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
» Steroids & Hormonal Science
» Surgery: Current Research
» Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
» Translational Medicine
» Trauma & Treatment
» Tropical Medicine and Surgery
» Vascular Medicine & surgery
» Women's Health Care
» Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
Management
» Accounting & Marketing
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
» Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Business and Economics Journal
» Business and Financial Affairs
» Civil & Legal Sciences
» Defense Management
» Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
» Global Economics
» Hotel & Business Management
» Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»International Journal of Accounting Research
» International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
» Mass Communication & Journalism
» political Sciences & public affairs
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
» Socialomics
» Stock & Forex Trading
» Tourism & Hospitality
 
   Conferences
Upcoming Conferences
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Translational Medicine, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Predictive, Preventive and Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
» 2nd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» International Conference on Genetic Engineering & Genetically Modified Organisms, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» 4th World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Radiology and Imaging, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Dental & Oral Health, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA
»International Conference on Oceanography, August 21-23, 2013 Orlando, USA
»International Conference on Biodefense & Natural Disasters, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA
» World Congress on Endocrinology, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo, August 26-27, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» 2nd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» International Conference on Omics Studies, September 04-06, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
»International Symposia on Entomology, September 04-06, 2013 Miami, USA
»2nd International Conference on Surgery and Anesthesia, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers & Biosimilars, September 23-25, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»4th World Congress on Biotechnology, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»International Conference on Psychology, Autism and Alzheimer's Disease, September 30-October 01, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, September 30-October 02, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Summit on Toxicology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biochemical & Molecular Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics, October 7-9, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical & Cellular Immunology, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»4th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Natural Products, October 21-23, 2013 Hyderabad, India
» 3rd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»3rd International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs, & STIs, October 24-25, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
» International Conference on Fermentation Technology, Bioprocess and Cell Culture, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»International Conference on Functional and Comparative Genomics & Pharmacogenomics, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Summit on GMP, QA & QC, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Summit on GLP, GCP & Clinical Pharmacology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials, November 18-19, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Summit on Clinical Pharmacy & Dispensing, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»3rd World Congress on Virology, November, 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious diseases, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»3rd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research, November 20-22, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Nursing & Emergency Medicine, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Nanotek & Expo, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine, December 09-11, 2013 Hyderabad, India
»2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, February 03-05, 2014 Hyderabad, India
Previous Conferences Organized/Co-organized
»2nd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Animal & Dairy Sciences, July 23-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»4th International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health & Safety, May 21-22, 2013 Beijing, China
»4th World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence, May 20-22, 2013 Beijing, China
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Exhibition and Conference on Water Technologies, Environmental Technologies & Renewable Energy, February 13-14, 2013 Mumbai, India
»International Summit on GMP & GCP: USA, Europe, Japan, Asia Pacific December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»International Conference on QA, QC and Validation, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»2nd International Conference on Nanotek and Expo, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity and Weight Management, December 03-05, 2012 at DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia, USA.
»International conference on Hair Transplantation and Trichology November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference on Anesthesia & Perioperative Care during November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Toxicology Summit & Expo November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Surgery & Transplantation November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad, India.
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
»2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India
»International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Cosmetics November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Genetic Syndromes & GeneTherapy November 19-21, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA
»Global Biofuels and Bioproducts Summit November 19-21, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics-2012, November 1921, 2012, Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Cell Science and Stem Cell Research, November 12-14, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»International Conference on Regenerative and Functional Medicine, November 12-14, 2012 at San Antonio, Texas, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics November 12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
» International Confeernce on Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine October 29 - 31, 2012 Chicago, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Aided Drug Design & QSAR October 29-31, 2012, Chicago, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical and Cellular Immunology October 22-24, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference and Expo on Material science and Engineering October 22-24, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
» International Expo and Conference on Analytrix & HPLC October 22-24, 2012 Hilton Northbrook, Chicago, USA.
»International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Otolaryngology October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International conference on Biothreats and Biodefense October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International Conference on Tissue Science and Engineering October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»International conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance and Clinical Trials October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»International Conference on Emerging Cell Therapies October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism which is to be held on September 24-26, 2012 Marriott Convention Center, Hyderabad, India.
»2nd International Conference on Pediatrics & Gynecology September 24-26, 2012, Hyderabad Marriott Hotel & Convention Centre , Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Translational medicine-2012, September 17-19, 2012 Holiday Inn San Antonio, Texas, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Biotechnology September 13-15, 2012 HICC, Hyderabad, India
»International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad, India.
» International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
» International Conference on Hotel and Business Management September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
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Research Article Open Access
 
Teacher Implementation of Joint Attention Intervention in Preschool Classrooms: Fidelity and Context
1Early Childhood Education, Nisonger Center, The Ohio State University, 371F McCampbell Hall, 1851 Dodd Dr, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
2Special Education, The Ohio State University, 371F McCampbell Hall, 1851 Dodd Dr, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
Kathy Lawton1,2*
and 3Psychological Studies in Education, Center for Autism Research & Treatment, University of California, Los Angeles, USA Connie Kasari3
 
Corresponding Author : Kathy Lawton
Early Childhood Education
Nisonger Center, The Ohio State University
371F McCampbell Hall
1851 Dodd Dr, Columbus
Ohio 43210, USA
Tel: +(614) 688-3308
Fax: +(614) 685-3191
E-mail: Kathy.lawton@osumc.edu
 
Received January 08, 2013; Accepted January 30, 2013; Published February 13, 2013
 
Citation: Lawton K, Kasari C (2013) Teacher Implementation of Joint Attention Intervention in Preschool Classrooms: Fidelity and Context. Autism 3:108. doi: 10.4172/2165-7890.1000108
 
Copyright: 2013 Lawton K, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 
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Abstract
 

Recent studies suggest that preschool teachers can improve core autism deficits. Implementation fidelity,
however, has not been a focus. This study examined the ability of sixteen preschool teachers to implement strategies of a manualized communication intervention targeting the core deficit of joint attention. Before treatment, teachers in both groups used few strategies, but they demonstrated more intervention strategies during individual child and teacher play interactions than in their classrooms. After treatment, teachers in the immediate treatment group used significantly more strategies than the control group with notable differences in their use of strategies in their classrooms. Results also suggest that some strategies may be easier than others for teachers to adopt.

 
Keywords
 
Teacher; Autism; Joint attention; Fidelity; Effectiveness; Preschool
 
Abbreviations
 
ASD: Autism Spectrum Disorder; IT: Immediate Treatment; JASP/ER: Joint Attention Symbolic Play and Emotion Regulation
 
Introduction
 
The earlier that evidence based treatments are implemented with children who have autism the better their long-term developmental outcomes [1]. Besides age, however, the content of these early interventions appears to be very important. Children with autism show specific deficiencies in some skills and not others. In the area of social communication, responding to and initiating joint attention are core features of impairment [2]. Initiating Joint Attention (IJA) refers to the way young children use nonverbal gestures such as pointing to share meaning about an idea or object with a social partner, whereas Responding to Joint Attention (RJA) refers to a child acknowledging another’s gestures to convey interest [3].
 
Both responding to and initiating joint attention skills have been associated with later language outcomes in children with autism [4]. For most young children, IJA is much more difficult to teach and many intervention studies do not separate IJA from RJA, presumably due to low rates of IJA [5]. IJA skills in children with autism can improve with intervention [6] and these IJA gains can improve long-term language outcomes [7,8].
 
Several studies have now demonstrated improvement of joint attention skills when expert therapists teach children [6] or when parents are coached by therapists [9]. Less common are effectiveness studies in which teachers are taught to improve joint attention skills in children with autism. Somewhat surprising has been the lack of focus on effectiveness studies, given that the majority of early autism interventions are implemented in applied settings [10].
 
The preschool context is extremely important for implementing evidenced based autism treatments because children spend significant portions of every day in school and large numbers of children attend public preschools, thereby affording under-resourced and underrepresented populations of children access to a potentially large dose of evidence based interventions. Moreover, teachers are ideal agents to implement an intervention at preschool. The communication and social/emotional delays that children with autism often display already qualify them to receive a range of educational services [10] and many public preschool teachers report that they do not use ‘scientificallybased’ or ‘evidence based’ strategies [11,12]. Additionally, teachers often report that they are very interested and motivated to learn evidence based autism practices [12].
 
There is tremendous potential in having teachers implement a packaged early autism joint attention intervention, especially since we know most preschool based autism practices are not evidenced based. For example, preschool teachers tend to respond to very few communicative gestures of young children with autism [13,14], despite the documented importance of explicitly acknowledging communication bids [15]. When teachers do respond to the communication of children with autism, they typically do not respond in ways that will facilitate better social communication [16]. Similarly, teachers of children with autism typically prompt for verbal communication much less than is recommended for children who are typically developing or developmentally delayed [17].
 
There are likely a number of challenges preventing teachers from providing more opportunities for social communication in the classroom [18]. In addressing these challenges for teachers, it is important to recognize that the intervention packages themselves may have some strategies that are easier to implement than others and that there may be different effects on child outcomes when strategies are applied in the classroom. Currently, we have little information on evidence based strategies that are easier for teachers of young children with autism to implement. More specifically, to our knowledge, there are no studies regarding the differential ability of teachers to implement the various strategies of a manualized social communication intervention. Indeed, even when teachers are taught to implement a new intervention, many studies do not include measures of implementation fidelity [19]. Both ease of implementation and noticeable effects on child outcome will influence how sustainable an evidenced based practice will be.
 
This study was concerned with understanding the extent with which teachers were able to implement a packaged joint attention intervention in their public school classroom. The packaged intervention (Joint Attention, Symbolic Play, and Emotion Regulation: JASP/ER) has been previously tested in randomized controlled trials executed by expert therapists [6], parents [9] and teachers [20]. However, the implementation of specific strategies across different contexts (1:1 versus in a group) has not been explored. Thus, this study examines teacher use of strategies for implementing the joint attention intervention in a 1:1 context with the child and in the classroom as a whole both before and after an intervention to teach the specific strategies.
 
Methods
 
Design
 
This study concerns the same participants in a randomized waitlist control study aimed at teaching teachers to improve joint attention skills in their young children with autism [3]. In this study, preschoolers with autism were randomly assigned to a group that received the experimental treatment as soon as the study began (IT) or a group that received the experimental treatment six weeks after the study began (DT). Randomization occurred at the unit of classroom and was conducted for each preschool. Our first study found that teachers in the experimental treatment used significantly more treatment strategies than teachers in the control group and that preschoolers in the experimental treatment used more joint attention and sustained longer periods of joint engagement than preschoolers in the control group. The study methodology is briefly described below to place the current study in context.
 
Participants
 
This study includes 16 dyads of preschoolers with ASD and the teacher or paraprofessional who worked with the preschooler. All children from the original study were included in this study. Twenty one children were consented for the study. However, five were excluded based upon the study’s established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Table 1 details the participant characteristics. There were no significant group differences on the cited entry characteristics.
 
Intervention
 
Teachers in the IT treatment were taught how to implement JASP/ ER, a manualized integrated developmental-behavioral intervention. IT teachers participated in two 30 minute intervention sessions led twice a week for six weeks by the first author (Kathy Lawton). These intervention sessions took place during already occurring classroom play activities. The Process Model of Sustained Program Implementation for Teachers [21] as well as our manualized coaching protocol [3] guided the instruction of teachers. Interventionist IT fidelity was high (99%).
 
Measures
 
Two measures were used to assess teacher fidelity: a classroom observation measure as well as a taped play interaction. The classroom observation measure assessed fidelity in a group setting, whereas the taped play interaction assessed fidelity when the child was 1:1 with the teacher. Blinded assessors naïve to treatment assignment collected the data for both measures. These coders were graduate students in Educational Psychology who were specifically trained to code the occurrence of these strategies.
 
The same coding scheme was utilized throughout both ten-minute assessments. Blinded coders noted whether teachers displayed any of the 11 JASP/ER strategies during each of the one minute intervals. All teacher behaviors were ones implemented by the interventionists in Kasari and colleagues’ studies [6,7,9] following the child’s lead, imitating the child’s play actions, waiting for communication, using contingent language, establishing play routines, violating play routines, expanding play routines, modeling joint attention skills, prompting for joint attention, promoting eye contact, and setting up the environment. These behaviors reflected the skills the teachers were taught during the packaged experimental intervention and are skills that are believed to directly improve joint attention. These skills are operationalized in a prior publication [3].
 
At the beginning and end of the study, teacher fidelity was assessed during ongoing playtime classroom interactions. The teacher was instructed to interact with the child and other students as she typically would. As with prior studies [2], reliability was assessed using Intra- Class Correlation Coefficients (ICC). Reliability was acceptable between two coders. Teacher performance on each of the 11 strategies are detailed: follow child’s lead (1.00), imitate child (.583), expand on child’s play actions (.847), waiting for communication (occurrence too low to score), contingent language (.834), violate routines (.500), model joint attention (.951), prompt for joint attention (occurrence too low to score), prompt for eye contact (occurrence too low to score), routine building (.928), setting up the environment (.928).
 
The teacher was also videotaped playing with the child whom she was assigned to work with in a 1:1 context when the study began and when the treatment concluded. Prior to the start of this taped play interaction, the teacher was instructed to play with the child as he or she typically would in an empty room at the preschool. A standard set of toys were used: a shape sorter, ball, blocks, two firemen dolls, a fire dog, a barn, four animals, train tracks, trains, doll bed, doll table, pretend food, child sized dishes, child silverware, child glasses, and a chef hat. The same protocol was used by Kasari and colleagues [6,7,9]. Reliability was conducted on 20% of the taped play interactions. Interclass correlations were acceptable: follow child’s lead (.945), expand on child’s play actions (1.00), waiting for communication (.960), contingent language (.982), violate routines (occurrence too low to score), model joint attention (.965), prompt for joint attention (occurrence too low to score), prompt for eye contact (occurrence too low to score), routine building (.640), setting up the environment (.994).
 
Teacher perception of the experimental intervention was assessed using a short questionnaire at the conclusion of the intervention. In this questionnaire adapted from prior studies by Kasari and colleagues, teachers responded to 23 questions using a five point likert scale. The scale assessed how feasible each IT teacher believed the intervention was within a classroom context, her perception of intervention mastery, and how much she thought the intervention induced any observed targeted child outcomes.
 
Procedure
 
The study was comprised of two time points that were separated by six weeks. Figure 1 depicts the procedures that were followed at each of the study time points. The figure omits detail regarding child assessments, since this paper is specifically concerned with teacher fidelity.
 
Results
 
This study investigated the ability of preschool teachers to implement strategies associated with a packaged social/communication intervention (JASP/ER) during regular classroom activities. Fidelity data from the taped play and classroom observation were analyzed using a series of ANCOVAs, descriptive statistics, and qualitative data analyses. In each ANCOVA, group was a fixed factor and the covariate was entry performance of the investigated JASP/ER strategy.
 
Beginning fidelity
 
Prior to the start of the intervention, teachers utilized few intervention strategies in their classroom and showed mastery of just a few intervention strategies on the taped play interaction. As can be seen in table 2, teachers utilized all of the 11 intervention strategies during the classroom observation; however, they occurred in less than one observational interval.
 
At entry, teachers in both groups demonstrated competence implementing three strategies during the taped 1:1 play interaction. The strategies of following the child’s lead, contingent language, and setting up the environment all occurred close to the majority of the interval. Following the child’s lead occurred during an average of 6.00 intervals (SD=3.28) for the IT group and an average of 6.57 intervals (SD=3.41) for the DT group. The IT group used contingent language an average of 5.56 intervals (SD=2.70) and the DT group utilized this strategy a similar amount, M=4.14, SD=3.67. Setting up the environment occurred an average of 5.33 intervals (SD=4.35) for the IT group and an average of 4.14 intervals (SD=4.26) for the DT group. It is worth noting that modeling joint attention skills occurred during an average of 2.33 intervals (SD=3.12) for the IT group and an average of 2.14 intervals (SD=1.35) for the DT group. All other strategies were used close to an average of 0 intervals.
 
Treatment effects
 
During the exit class observation, there were significant group differences in the following intervention strategies: following the child’s lead (F(1, 13)=9.29, p<.001; d=1.79, CI=-.61-3.13), imitation (F(1, 13)=8.76, p<.05, d=1.66, CI=-.65-2.24), expanding play routines (F(1, 13)=5.31, p<.05, d=1.58, CI=-.36-1.58), modeling joint attention (F (1, 13)=8.56, p<.001, d=2.68, CI=1.11-3.26), establishing routines (F(1, 13)=12.15, p<.01, d=2.13, CI=.18-2.41), contingent language (F(1, 13)=11.25, p<.005, d=1.58, CI=-.91-2.28), and setting up the environment (F(1, 13)=12.09, p<.01; d=1.90, CI=-.35-3.58). There were no group differences in the other 3 strategies. When the bonferroni correction was applied to each of these analyses, significant differences remained for 4 of the strategies: following the child’s lead, modeling joint attention, establishing routines, and setting up the environment.
 
During the exit taped 1:1 play interaction, significant group differences existed for following the child’s lead (F (1, 13)=8.59, p<.05 .12, d=1.43, CI=.63-3.33) and imitation (F (1, 13)=6.12, p<.05.28, d=1.22, CI=-.92-2.97). There were no group differences for any other intervention strategies. When the bonferonni correction was applied, there were no statistically significant group differences in following the child’s lead or imitation.
 
Perception of intervention
 
Overall, IT teachers and paraprofessionals rated the intervention highly. The mean score on the 5 point likert perception scale was 4.18 (SD=1.69). As shown in figure 2, the teachers and paraprofessionals perceived the intervention to be effective with the child and reported feeling competent using strategies to promote joint attention. The feasibility of the intervention was rated as not overly difficult or overly easy (M=3.28).
 
Discussion
 
This study investigated the ability of preschool teachers to implement 11 strategies of the packaged JASP/ER intervention. Before the intervention started, teachers rarely used any of the intervention strategies in their classrooms, yet they were able to use three strategies during the 1:1 taped play interaction. There were treatment effects for the majority of intervention strategies on the classroom observation and fewer treatment effects on the taped play interaction. Teachers rated the intervention highly.
 
This pilot investigation suggests that the validated experimental intervention can alter the behavior of a new intervention agent (teachers). It is noteworthy that the intervention seems to be able to alter the behavior of teachers, given the abundance of teacher training obstacles and the difficulties at implementing evidenced based practice in a school setting [22]. Furthermore, because preschool teachers spend a large amount of time with children who have autism, having teachers implement a validated early autism intervention is low-cost and potentially higher-dose in comparison to clinician-mediated interventions.
 
Before the intervention started, all teachers were able to implement more intervention strategies during the taped 1:1 play interaction than the classroom observation measure. The taped play assessment was conducted in a separate, quiet room in the preschool where teachers were able to focus all of their attention on the preschooler with autism. In contrast, the classroom observation was conducted during ongoing classroom activities where teachers were responsible for the instruction of multiple children. If teachers knew any of the JASP/ER strategies prior to the start of the intervention, it only seems logical that they would be able to at least implement them during the optimal assessment context of the 1:1 taped play interaction. Indeed, both groups of teachers were similar in their strategy use in the 1:1 interactions.
 
Because IT teachers only knew how to implement a few JASP/ER strategies under ideal conditions, the intervention needed to teach the teachers how to implement these strategies in the less predictable and more demanding classroom environment. Thus, the focus of the intervention session was not just on instructing teachers how to implement a brand new skill, but also how to utilize a skill that they knew in an ideal setting to a less predictable environment. It appears that the IT teachers learned how to generalize the intervention strategies across play settings due to the fact that the IT teachers ended up using a similar number of strategies in both contexts.
 
Interestingly, at exit, IT teachers implemented more strategies in their classrooms than they did in their taped play interactions. These findings suggest that IT teachers might not have been able to fully generalize all strategies to a novel setting. The teachers seem to have been most skilled at implementing the intervention strategies in the environment that they were taught in, their classrooms.
 
All IT teachers were taught all 11 intervention strategies, yet most IT teachers and paraprofessionals only used about seven of these strategies. No IT teacher or paraprofessional implemented all 11 intervention strategies during either the class observation or the taped play interaction. This finding suggests that some JASP/ER intervention strategies are more ‘transportable’ from clinicians to teachers than others. In particular, following the child’s lead and imitation appear the most transportable. This lack of transportability could be due to several factors. The strategies themselves may be too difficult for teachers to implement at the same time as other teaching responsibilities. Additionally, the coaching methodology may not have been the best way to teach these difficult intervention strategies. Furthermore, teachers may have intentionally not used some of the strategies; most teachers adapt the interventions that they are taught by university groups for a variety of reasons, such as their buy-in of an intervention or their perceived need of how the intervention must change in order to work in their classroom [23,24]
 
Treatment effects existed for only two strategies across both contexts: following the child’s lead and imitation. Future investigations should ascertain why these intervention strategies appeared to be easily learned by teachers. It is possible the strategies themselves might be more feasible than the other 9 strategies. However, the teachers may simply have bought into the strategies more and been more committed to implementing them. Additionally, the order with which the strategies were taught might be an explanation. Both strategies were taught within the first three weeks of the intervention and the teachers may have benefited from the extra practice time with these strategies.
 
The experimental intervention was favorably perceived by the IT teachers and paraprofessionals. IT teachers and paraprofessionals reported believing that the intervention induced gains in child social communication and felt competent at implementing the intervention strategies. The mean score for the feasibility domain was the lowest. Teachers and paraprofessionals rated the feasibility as the middle score of the five-point likert scale, not overly difficult nor overly easy.
 
It is well-acknowledged that little is currently known regarding the most influential and efficient methods for transporting empirically supported treatments to community settings [24] and that there is a large need for researchers to identify more successful ways to adapt empirically supported treatments to the real-world [25]. Thus, future investigations should examine how best to instruct teachers on the various intervention strategies; teachers may benefit from learning the different intervention strategies differently than this intervention and be aided by sessions that are specifically tailored to the preschool setting. It is also possible that fidelity would be higher if a simplified version of the university-based treatment was presented [24,26]. Likewise, it is also important to determine how important each intervention strategy is for producing joint attention gains [27] and to better understand how fidelity influences child treatment effects. Finally, future studies will benefit from larger samples so that moderators of treatment efficacy can be examined, such as specific interventionist and child characteristics.
 
Conclusion
 
Public preschool teachers were successfully taught how to implement strategies shown to lead to improvements in the joint attention of young children with autism. Teachers increased the number of strategies that they used in an attempt to promote the joint attention of preschoolers across multiple play contexts and they favorably perceived the intervention. Two strategies were particularly transportable: following the child’s lead and imitation of child actions. Initial difficulty in demonstrating strategies in the classroom significantly improved with treatment. This intervention holds promise for preschool teachers being able to successfully implement an intervention aimed at improving the core autism deficit of joint attention.
 
Acknowledgements
 
We acknowledge the support of school district personnel, Kim Johnson, Sonia Dickson-Bracks, and Becca Dannelley. We also appreciate the participation of parents, teachers and paraprofessionals and research staff (Jilly Chang, Marina Farberov, Janet Bang, Eric Ishijima, Nancy Huynh, Sara Levitt, Monica Perez Guerrerez, Tanya Paparella and Amanda Gulsrud). We are thankful for the consultation of Dr. Jeffrey Wood, Dr. Carollee Howes, and Dr. Thomas Wiseman.
 
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